An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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subscription
  زیر-وشت   
zirvešt

Fr.: souscription   

1) A sum of money given or pledged as a contribution, payment, investment, etc. 2) The right to receive a periodical for a sum paid, usually for an agreed number of issues (Dictionary.com).

subscribe; → -tion.

subsonic
  زیر-صدایی   
zir-sedâyi

Fr.: subsonique   

Describing a speed that is less than the speed of sound in the medium concerned. → supersonic.

sub-; → sonic.

subsonic flow
  تچان ِ زیر-صدایی   
tacân-e zir-sedâyi

Fr.: écoulement subsonique   

A flow in which the velocity of the constituting particles never exceeds that of sound in the same fluid. Also called subcritical flow.

subsonic; → flow.

subtraction
  زیرکرشش   
zirkaršeš

Fr.: soustraction   

The operation of finding the difference between two numbers or quantities.

Verbal noun of → subtract.

suggestion
  پیشنهاد   
pišnehâd (#)

Fr.: suggestion   

1) The act of suggesting.
2) The state of being suggested.
3) Something suggested, as a piece of advice (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun of → suggest.

super Moon
  ابر ماه   
abar mâh

Fr.: pleine lune de périgée   

Same as → perigee full Moon.

super-; → Moon.

super-canonical star
  ستاره‌ی ِ ابر-هنجاروار   
setâre-ye abar-hanjârvâr

Fr.: étoile super-canonique   

A star whose mass exceeds the → canonical upper limit of the stellar → initial mass function (Kroupa et al. 2012, arXiv:1112.3340).

super-; → canonical; → star.

super-Eddington wind
  باد ِ ابر-ادینگتونی   
bâd-e abar-Eddingtoni

Fr.: vent super-Eddington   

A → stellar wind accelerated by radiation pressure in the continuum from a star with a luminosity above the → Eddington limit.

super-; → Eddington limit; → wind.

superconductivity
  اَبَر-هازندگی   
abar-hâzandegi

Fr.: superconductivité   

The phenomenon in which certain materials, when cooled to a sufficiently low temperature, lose all resistance to the flow of electricity.

super-; → conductivity

superconductor
  اَبَر-هازنده   
abar-hâzandé

Fr.: superconducteur   

A material which shows almost perfect conductivity at temperatures approaching absolute zero.

super-; → conductor.

supergalactic longitude
  درژنای ِ ابرکهکشانی   
derežnâ-ye abarkahkašâni

Fr.: longitude supergalactique   

supergalactic coordinate system.

supergalactic; → longitude.

supergranulation cell
  یاخته‌ی ِ اَبَر-دانه‌بندی   
yâxte-ye abar-dâne-bandi

Fr.: cellule de supergranulation   

One of a number of large convective cells (about 15,000-30,000 km in diameter) in the solar photosphere, distributed fairly uniformly over the solar disk, that last longer than a day.

super-; → granulation; → cell.

superion
  ابریون   
abaryon

Fr.: superion   

An ion which is responsible for the existence of a strong → P Cygni profile observed in many early O stars. Since the → effective temperature of the star is too low to produce such an ion appreciably, the ion is termed a superion. For example, the ion O5+ which is at the origin of a strong O VI λλ1031, 1038 P Cygni profile observed in many O stars. Similarly, the lines due to N V λλ1238, 1242 belong to the superion category, while in later spectral types C IV λλ1548, 1552 also falls into this category. Initial modeling of the → ultraviolet line superions assumed the → stellar winds were smooth and homogeneous. However it is now generally accepted that the winds are (→ clumped wind), and this can have a profound influence on the formation of the superion profiles. We know that the strength of lines due to the superions is strongly influenced by the → interclump medium. Indeed, the interclump medium may be more important for producing the lines than are the clumps -- this is simply a consequence of the higher ionization in the interclump medium which occurs because of its lower density (see D. John Hillier, 2020, https://www.mdpi.com/2075-4434/8/3/60/htm, and references therein).

super-; → ion.

superior conjunction
  هم‌ایستان ِ زبرین   
hamistân-e zabarin

Fr.: conjonction supérieure   

The conjunction of a planet with the Sun which occurs when the planet is beyond the Sun. → inferior conjunction.

superior; → conjunction.

superior culmination
  بالست ِ زبرین   
bâlest-e zabarin

Fr.: culmination supérieure   

The meridian transit of a star between the celestial pole and the south point of the horizon. Same as → upper culmination. → inferior culmination.

superior; → culmination.

superluminal motion
  جنبش ِ اَبَر-نوری   
jonbeš-e abar-nuri

Fr.: mouvement superluminal   

Apparent proper motion exceeding the velocity of light seen toward certain astronomical objects, such as the jets of radio galaxies and quasars. However, these jets are not actually moving at speeds in excess of the speed of light: the apparent superluminal motion is a projection effect caused by objects moving near the speed of light and at a small angle to the line of sight.

super-; luminal, from → lumen; → motion.

Jonbeš, → motion; abarsuper-; nur, → light.

supermassive neutron star
  ستاره‌ی ِ نوترونی ِ ِ اَبَر-پرجرم   
setâre-ye notroni-ye abar-porjerm

Fr.: étoile à neutron supermassive   

A → neutron star of mass above the typical value that is temporarily prevented from → collapseing into a → black hole because of its rapid → rotation.

supermassive; → neutron; → star.

supermoon
  ابرمانگ   
abarmâng

Fr.: super lune   

Same as → perigee full Moon.

super-; → moon.

supernova explosion
  اُسکفت ِ اَبَر-نو‌اختر   
oskaft-e abar-now-axtar

Fr.: explosion de supernova   

The very short and violent phenomenon that occurs when a star undergoes → core collapse or → thermonuclear runaway.

supernova; → explosion.

superposition
  برهم‌نهش   
barhamneheš

Fr.: superposition   

1) The act of placing upon; the state of being placed upon.
2) Math. The act of placing (one geometric figure) over another so that all like parts coincide.

super- + → position.

Barhamneheš, from bar- "on, upon, up" (Mid.Pers. abar; O.Pers. upariy "above; over, upon, according to;" Av. upairi "above, over," upairi.zəma- "located above the earth;" cf. Gk. hyper- "over, above;" L. super-; O.H.G. ubir "over;" PIE base *uper "over") + -ham- "together, with," → syn-, + neheš, → position.

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