An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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calibration error
  ایرنگِ کبیزش   
irang-e kabizeš

Fr.: erreur d'étalonnage   

A systematic error in the constant values to be applied to a measuring instrument.

calibration; → error.

Irang, → error; kabizeš, → calibration.

calibration exposure
  نوردادِ کبیزش   
nurdâd-e kabizeš

Fr.: pose d'étalonnage   

An exposure obtained with an instrument mounted on the telescope using an artificial illuminating source in order to calibrate the instrument.

calibration; → exposure.

Nurdâd, → exposure; kabizeš, → calibration.

calibration lamp
  لامپِ کبیزش   
lâmp-e kabizeš

Fr.: lampe d'étalonnage   

A lamp used for instrument calibration, such as an internal He-Ar arc for wavelength calibration or an external source of light placed in the telescope dome for flat-field exposures.

calibration; lamp, from O.Fr. lampe, L. lampas, from Gk. lampas "torch, lamp, light, meteor," from lampein "to shine."

Kabizeš, → calibration; lâmp, from Fr., as above.

Canon der Finsternisse
  فهرست ِ گرفت‌ها   
fehrest-e gerefthâ (#)

Fr.: Canon des éclipses   

Canon of Eclipses. The most famous catalogue of solar and lunar eclipses. Published in 1887 by Theodor von Oppolzer, the catalogue contains the elements of all solar and lunar eclipses between 1208 BC and 2161 AD. It has been superseded by the calculations of F. Espenak and J. Meeus, Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (NASA/TP-2006-214141) and Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (NASA/TP-2009-214172).

Canon, from L. canon, from Gk. kanon "a straight rod, a measuring rod, rule;" Ger. Finsternisse, plural from finsternis "eclipse; darkness," from finster "dark," M.H.G. vinster, O.H.G. finstar "dark" + -nis suffix forming abstract nouns, → -ness.

Fehrest "index, catalogue, canon," → index; gerefthâ plural of gereft, → eclipse.

canonical
  هنجاروار   
hanjârvâr

Fr.: canonique   

1) General: Pertaining to, established by, or conforming to a canon, i.e. a law or a general rule (especially in ecclesiastical matters).
2) Math.: Relating to the simplest or standard form of a general function, equation, rule, etc.

M.M. canonicalis, from canonic(us), from L. canon, from Gk. kanon "a straight rod, a measuring rod, rule " + alis, → -al.

Hanjârvâr, from hanjâr "a mason's rule, any string or instrument used by builders in laying stones straight; rule, law, way, custom; a norm" + -vâr suffix meaning "having, endowed with; like, in the manner of."

canonical change
  دگرشد ِ هنجاروار، دگرش ِ ~   
degaršod-e hanjârvâr, degareš-e ~

Fr.: changement canonique   

A periodic change in one of the components of the orbit of a celestial object.

canonical; → change.

canonical coordinates
  هماراها‌یِ هنجاروار   
hamârâhâ-ye hanjârvâr,

Fr.: coordonnées canoniques   

Any set of generalized coordinates of a system together with their → conjugate momenta.

canonical; → coordinates.

canonical correlation
  هم‌باز‌آنشِ هنجاروار   
hambâzânš-e hanjârvâr

Fr.: correlation canonique   

The highest correlation between linear functions of two data sets when specific restrictions are imposed upon them.

canonical; → correlation.

canonical equation
  هموگشِ هنجاروار   
hamugeš-e hanjârvâr

Fr.: équation canonique   

The most general form of an equation.

canonical; → equation.

canonical form
  دیسه‌یِ هنجاروار   
dise-ye hanjârvâr

Fr.: forme canonique   

The simplest expression of an equation, statement, or rule.

canonical; → form.

canonical IMF
   IMF ِ هنجاروار   
IMF-e hanjârvâr

Fr.: IMF canonique   

A two-component stellar → initial mass function with → slopes of 1.3 and 2.3 for massive and low mass stars, respectively. Also called universal IMF.

canonical; → IMF.

canonical momentum
  جنباکِ هنجاروار   
jonbâk-e hanjârvâr

Fr.: moment cinétique canonique   

Same as → conjugate momentum.

canonical; → momentum.

canonical upper limit
  حد ِ زبرین ِ جرم   
hadd-e zabarin-e jerm

Fr.: limite supériure canonique   

A physical upper mass limit near 150 Msun assumed for the stellar → initial mass function (Kroupa et al. 2012, arXiv:1112.3340).

canonical; → upper; → limit.

canonically conjugate variable
  ورتنده‌یِ هنجاروارانه همیوغ   
vartande-ye hanjârvârâné hamyuq

Fr.: variable canoniquement conjuguée   

A generalized coordinate and its → conjugate momentum.

Canonically, adverb from → canonical; → conjugate; → variable.

capillary action
  ژیرش ِ مویینه، مویینگی   
žireš-e muyiné, muyinegi

Fr.: capillarité   

The ability of a → liquid to → flow in a → narrow space, such as a thin → tube, without the assistance of, and in opposition to, external forces like → gravity. Also called → capillarity. It occurs because of intermolecular → attractive forces between the liquid and solid surrounding surfaces. If the diameter of the tube is sufficiently small, then the combination of → surface tension (which is caused by → cohesion within the liquid) and → adhesion (between the liquid and the → container) acts to lift the liquid. The capillarity of the liquid is high when adhesion is greater than cohesion. For example, water in a thin glass tube has strong → adhesive forces due to the hydrogen bonds that form between the water molecules and the oxygen atoms in the glass wall (made of → silica, SiO2). In contrast, mercury is characterized by stronger cohesion, and hence its capillarity is much lower.

capillary; → action.

caption
  کپش   
kapeš

Fr.: légende   

1) A title or explanation for a picture or illustration, especially in a magazine.
2) A heading or title, as of a chapter, article, or page (Dictionary.com).

M.E. capcio(u)n "taking, seizure," from capcion "arrest, capture, imprisonment," or directly from L. caption-, from capt(us) "taken," → capture.

Kapéš "taking, capture," verbal noun from kapidan "to seize, take, capture," related to qâpidan, qâp zadan "to rob, to seize," Malâyeri qapâl "robbing, seizure, robbing," probably related to L. capere, → capture.

carbon
  کربون   
karbon (#)

Fr.: carbone   

Nonmetallic chemical element; symbol C. → Atomic number 6; → atomic weight 12.011; → melting point about 3,550°C; → boiling point 4,827°C. The most abundant isotope of carbon is 12C. Carbon is one of the most important elements for life. The burning of carbon in the form of coal and oils has been essential in the development of industrial societies. It is the element that hardens → steel and the sole element in → diamonds. The carbon in nature is produced inside massive stars. → triple-alpha process; → Hoyle state.

Carbon, from Fr. carbone, coined by Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) to distinguish it from charbon (Fr.) "charcoal," from L. carbo (genitive carbonis) "a coal, charcoal."

carbon burning
  سوزش ِ کربون   
suzeš-e karbon

Fr.: combustion du carbon   

The stage in the evolution of a star after → helium burning when the core of the star consists mainly of carbon and oxygen. In stars of mass greater than about 8 solar masses, whose cores reach a temperature above 5 × 108 K and density above 3 × 109 kg m-3, carbon burning can begin via reactions such as the following:
12C + 12C → 20Ne + 4He
12C + 12C → 23Na + p
12C + 12C → 23Mg + n.
The time-scale for this phase of → nucleosynthesis is of order of five hundred years.

carbon; → burning.

carbon crisis
  پرژنه‌ی ِ کربون   
paržane-ye karbon

Fr.: crise du carbone   

A problem raised in the past by observations suggesting that the amount of carbon necessary for standard → dust models was larger than what actually observed for the → interstellar medium (ISM) (Snow & Witt 1995). The problem was especially acute for the → 2175 A bump in the ultraviolet part of the → extinction curve. The so-called "crisis" was finally solved by, on the one hand, revising downward the → solar abundances, thought to represent the ISM abundances (Asplund et al. 2009, arXiv:0909.0948, and references therein), and, on the other hand, revising upward the ISM carbon abundances (Sofia et al., 2011, AJ 141, 22S).

carbon; → crisis.

carbon cycle
  چرخه‌ی ِ کربون   
carxe-ye karbon (#)

Fr.: cycle du carbone   

1) A complex series of processes through which all the carbon atoms on Earth is cycled through the air, ground, plants, animals, and fossil fuels. During the cycle, plants absorb → carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and through → photosynthesis incorporate the associated carbon atoms into sugars and other molecules necessary for growth. Plants return carbon atoms back to the atmosphere in the form of CO2. However, much of the carbon absorbed remains "locked up" in the living organisms until decomposition or fire releases it back to the atmosphere.
2) For nuclear fusion in stars → CNO cycle.

carbon; → cycle.

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