An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Newtonian
  نیوتنی   
Newtoni (#)

Fr.: newtonien   

Of or pertaining to Sir Isaac Newton or to his theories or discoveries.

Newtonian, from → Newton + -ian a suffix forming adjectives.

Newtonian approximation
  نزدینش ِ نیوتنی   
nazdineš-e Newtoni

Fr.: approximation newtonienne   

A particular solution of the → general relativity when the → gravitational mass is small. The → space-time is then approximated to the → Minkowski's and this leads to → Newtonian mechanics.

Newtonian; → approximation.

Newtonian constant of gravitation
  پایای ِ گرانش ِ نیوتن   
pâyâ-ye gerâneš-e Newton

Fr.: constante de la gravitation newtonienne   

Same as the → gravitational constant.

Newtonian; → constant; → gravitation.

Newtonian cosmology
  کیهان‌شناسی ِ نیوتنی   
keyhânšenâsi-ye Newtoni

Fr.: cosmologie newtonienne   

The use of → Newtonian mechanics to derive homogeneous and isotropic solutions of → Einstein's field equations, which represent models of expanding Universe. The Newtonian cosmology deviates from the prediction of → general relativity in the general case of anisotropic and inhomogeneous models.

Newtonian; → cosmology.

Newtonian fluid
  شاره‌ی ِ نیوتنی   
šârre-ye Newtoni

Fr.: fluide newtonien   

Any → fluid with a constant → viscosity at a given temperature regardless of the rate of → shear.

Newtonian; → fluid.

Newtonian focus
  کانون ِ نیوتن، ~ نیوتنی   
kânun-e Newton, ~ Newtoni

Fr.: foyer de Newton   

The focus obtained by diverting the converging light beam of a reflecting telescope to the side of the tube.

Newtonian; → focus.

Newtonian limit
  حد ِ نیوتنی   
hadd-e Newtoni

Fr.: limite newtonienne   

The limit attained by → general relativity when velocities are very smaller than the → speed of light or gravitational fields are weak. This limit corresponds to the transition between general relativity and the → Newtonian mechanics. See also → Newtonian approximation.

Newtonian; → limit.

Newtonian mechanics
  مکانیک ِ نیوتنی   
mekânik-e Newtoni (#)

Fr.: mécanique newtonienne   

A system of mechanics based on → Newton's law of gravitation and its derivatives. Same as → classical mechanics.

Newtonian; → mechanics.

Newtonian potential
  توند ِ نیوتنی   
tavand-e Newtoni

Fr.: potentiel newtonien   

A potential in a field of force obeying the inverse-square law such as → gravitational potential.

Newtonian; → potential.

Newtonian principle of relativity
  پروز ِ بازانیگی ِ نیوتن   
parvaz-e bâzânigi-ye Newton

Fr.: principe de relativité de Newton   

The Newton's equations of motion, if they hold in any → reference frame, they are valid also in any other reference frame moving with uniform velocity relative to the first.

Newtonian; → principle; → relativity.

Newtonian relativity
  بازانیگی ِ نیوتنی   
bâzânigi-ye Newtoni

Fr.: relativité newtonienne   

The laws of physics are unchanged under → Galilean transformation. This implies that no mechanical experiment can detect any intrinsic diff between two → inertial frames. Same as → Galilean relativity.

Newton; → relativity.

Newtonian telescope
  دوربین ِ نیوتن، تلسکوپ ِ ~   
durbin-e Newton, teleskop-e ~

Fr.: télescope de Newton, ~ newtonien   

A telescope with a concave paraboloidal objective mirror and a small plane mirror that reflects rays from the primary mirror laterally outside the tube where the image is viewed with an eyepiece.

Newtonian; → telescope.

nodal regression
  پسرفت ِ گرهی   
pasraft-e gerehi

Fr.: regression nodale   

For a ring inclined to the planet's equator, the points at which the ring crosses the equator (nodes) slowly move around the planet (regress) in a direction opposite to that of the ring's orbital motion. (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).

nodal; → regression.

nodical month
  ماه ِ گرهی، ~ گوزهری   
mâh-e gerehi (#), ~ gowzahri (#)

Fr.: mois draconitique   

The time interval between two successive passages of the Moon through its ascending node (27.212220 days, i.e., 27 days 5 hours 5 minutes 35.8 seconds). Nodical month is important for predicting eclipses. Also called → draconic month.

Nodical adj. of → node; → month.

Mâh, → month; gerehi, adj. of gereh, → node; gowzahridraconic month.

nomination
  نامنش   
nâmeneš

Fr.: nomination   

An act or instance of nominating, especially to office. The state of being nominated (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun of → nominate.

non-
  نا-   
nâ- (#)

Fr.: non-   

A prefix meaning "not."

From O.Fr. non-, from L. non "not," from Old L. noenum "not one;" in some cases perhaps from M.E. non "not" (adj.), from O.E. nan.

Nâ- "no, not," variants na, ni, ma- (prohibitive) "not;" from Mid.Pers. nê, ma "no, not;" O.Pers. naiy, nai "not;" Av. nôit, naē "not;" cf. Skt. "not;" cf. L. ne-, in-, un-; Gk. ni; Lith. ; O.C.S. ne "not;" PIE *ne-.

non-algebraic function
  کریای ِ ناجبری   
karyâ-ye nâjabri

Fr.: fonction non algébrique   

A → transcendental function. Examples are: exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions.

non-; → algebraic + → function.

non-baryonic dark matter
  ماده‌ی ِ سیاه ِ ناباریونی   
mâde-ye siyâh-e nâbâriyoni

Fr.: matière noire non-baryonique   

Dark matter composed of → non-baryonic particles.

non-; → baryonic; → dark; → matter.

non-baryonic matter
  مادّه‌ی ِ ناباریونی   
mâdde-ye nâbâriyoni (#)

Fr.: matière non-baryonique   

Matter that, unlike the ordinary matter, is not made of baryons (including the neutrons and protons). It is proposed as a possible constituent of dark matter.

non-; → baryonic matter.

non-coherent radiation
  تابش ِ ناهمدوس   
tâbeš-e nâhamdus (#)

Fr.: rayonnement incohrént   

Radiation having waves that are out of phase in space and/or time; radiation which is not → coherent.

non-; → coherent; → radiation.

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