An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1223
characteristic mass
  جرم ِ سرشتاری   
jerm-e sereštâri

Fr.: masse caractéristique   

A typical or most likely mass for the formation of an astronomical object. In current star formation models, it is of order of a few tenths of a → solar mass.

characteristic; → mass.

characteristic thermal energy
  کاروژ ِ گرمایی ِ سرشتاری   
kâruž-e garmâyi-ye sereštâri

Fr.: énergie thermique caractéristique   

The quantity kT in the → Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law, where k is → Boltzmann's constant and T the gas temperature. See also → thermal energy.

characteristic; → thermal; → energy

characterization
  ۱) سرشتارش؛ ۲) تنومسا سازی   
1) sereštâreš 2) tanumsâ sâzi

Fr.: 1) caractérisation; 2) représentation des caractères   

1) The act of describing the character or qualities of someone or something.
2) The artistic representation (as in fiction or drama) of human character or motives (Merriam-Webster.com).

characterize; → -tion.

characterize
  سرشتاردن   
sereštârdan

Fr.: caractériser   

1) To mark or distinguish as a characteristic; be a characteristic of.
2) To describe the character or individual quality of.
3) To attribute character to (Dictionary.com).

character; → -ize.

charcoal
  زغال   
zoqâl (#)

Fr.: charbon de bois   

A black amorphous substance produced by heating wood or other natural organic matter in the absence of air. It is used as a fuel.

M.E. charcole, maybe from cherre "char" + cole, → coal.

Zoqâl "live coal, charcoal," variant sokâr; Sogd. askâr; Pashto skor-; Khotanese skara, probably ultimately from Proto-Ir. *uz-gar-, from *uz- "out," → ex-, + *gar "to heat, kindle fire, cook;" cf. Tabari kalə "furnace," kəlen "ash;" Laki koira; Kurd. kulan, kulandan "to cook;" related to garm "warm;" cf. Skt. ghar- "to burn," PIE root *gwher- "to warm, be warm," → warm.

charge
  بار   
bâr (#)

Fr.: charge   

electric charge.

Charge from O.Fr. chargier "load, burden," from L.L. carricare "to load a wagon, cart," from L. carrus "wagon."

Bâr "charge, weight," from Mid.Pers. bâr, from O.Pers./Av. base bar- "to bear, carry," Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry," L. brutus "heavy, dull, stupid, brutish," Skt. bhara- "burden, load," bharati "he carries," Gk. baros "weight," Mod.Pers. gerân "heavy," Skt. guru, L. gravis; PIE *gwere- "heavy," *bher- "carry, give birth."

charge bleeding
  سرریز ِ بار   
sarriz-e bâr

Fr.: étalement de charge   

The heavy saturation of CCD pixels whereby electrons spill over up and down the column; also called blooming.

chrge; bleeding, from Bleed, from O.E. bledan, from P.Gmc. *blothjan "emit blood" (cf. Ger. bluten), from *blotham "blood", PIE root bhel- "to bloom, thirve".

Sarriz "overflow", from sar "head" (Mid.Pers. sar, Av. sarah- "head," Skt. siras- "head," Gk. kara "head," keras "horn," Mod.Pers. sarun "horn," L. cerebrum "brain;" PIE *ker- "head, horn") + riz present stem of rixtan "to pour; to flow; to cast" (Mid.Pers. rēxtan and rēcitan "to flow," Av. raēk- "to leave, set free; to yield, transfer," infinitive *ricyā, Mod.Pers; rig in morderig "heritage" (literally, "left by the dead"), Skt. rinakti "he leaves," riti- "stream; motion, course," L. rivus "stream, brook," Old Church Slavic rēka "river," Rus. reka "river," Goth. rinnan "run, flow," rinno "brook," O.E. ridh "stream;" PIE base *rei- "to flow; to run").

charge carrier
  برنده‌ی ِ بار، باربر   
barande-ye bâr (#), bârbar (#)

Fr.: porteur de charges   

A mobile particle carrying an electric charge. In semiconductors, a mobile electron or hole. Also called carrier.

charge; → carrier.

charge conjugation
  همیوغش ِ بار   
hamyuqeš-e bâr (#)

Fr.: conjugaison de charges   

In particle physics, an operation that changes a particle to its antiparticle in equations describing subatomic particles or, equivalently, reverses its charge and magnetic moment.

charge; → conjugation.

charge density
  چگالی ِ بار   
cagâli-ye bâr

Fr.: densité de charge   

The → electric charge per unit volume in space, or per unit area on a surface, or per unit length of a line. They are respectively called volume- (ρ), surface- (σ), or line (λ) charge density.

charge; → density.

charge exchange
  گهولش ِ بار   
gahuleš-e bâr

Fr.: échande de charge   

A collisional process in which an → ion collides with a neutral → atom or → molecule and captures one of its electrons. One of the most important charge-exchange processes occurring in the → interstellar medium is: O+ + H → H+ + O + 0.020 eV.

charge; → exchange.

charge invariance
  ناورتایی ِ بار   
nâvartâyi-ye bâr

Fr.: invariance de charge   

The → electric charge carried by an object is independent of the → velocity of the object with respect to the → observer. In other words, the charge is the same in any → frame of reference.

charge; → invariance.

charge symmetry
  همامونی ِ بار   
hamâmuni-ye bâr

Fr.: symétrie de charge   

Same as → charge conjugation and → C-symmetry.

charge; → symmetry.

charge trap
  تله‌ی ِ بار   
tale-ye bâr

Fr.: piège à charge   

Defects or impurities in a CCD structure which prevent charges in certain pixels from being transferred to the next pixel.

charge; trap, from O.E. træppe "snare, trap," from P.Gmc. *trap-.

Talé "trap," Mid.Pers. talag "trap, snare."

charge-coupled device (CCD)
  دستگاه ِ جفسری ِ بار   
dastgâh-e jafsari-ye bâr, sisidi

Fr.: dispositif à transfert de charge   

A solid-state detector that stores the electrons, produced by incident photons, in potential wells at the surface of a semiconductor. The packages of charge are moved about the surface by being transferred to similar adjacent potential wells. The wells are controlled by the manipulation of voltage applied to surface electrodes.

charge; coupled adj. from → couple; → device.

charge-injection device (CID)
  دستگاه ِ درشانش ِ بار   
dastrgâh-e daršâneš-e bâr

Fr.: dispositif à injection de charge   

A charge-transfer device that passes along stored charges positioned at predetermined locations; it is used as an image sensor in which the image points are accessed by reference to their horizontal and vertical coordinates.

charge; → injection; → device.

charge-parity symmetry
  همامونی ِ بار-همالی   
hamâmuni-ye bâr-hamâli

Fr.: symétrie charge-parité   

The laws of physics should be the same if a particle is interchanged with its → antiparticle (→ charge conjugation), or swapped for its mirror image (→ parity symmetry). It is known that charge-parity (CP) symmetry holds for interactions involving → electromagnetism, → gravitation, and → strong interactions, but CP violation is known to occur during → weak interactions involved in → radio decay. Same as → CP-symmetry.

charge; → parity; → symmetry.

charge-transfer device
  دستگاه ِ تراوژ ِ بار   
dastgâh-e tarâvaž-e bâr

Fr.: dispositif de transfert de charge   

A semi-conductor device that relays stored charges positioned at predetermined locations, such as charge-coupled or charge-injection devices.

charge; → transfer; → device.

charge-transfer efficiency (CTE)
  کارایی ِ تراوژ ِ بار   
kârâyi-ye tarâvaž-e bâr

Fr.: efficacité de transfert de charge   

Fraction of the original charge which is successfully transferred from one pixel to the next in one CCD cycle.

charge; → transfer; → efficiency.

charged
  باردار   
bârdâr (#)

Fr.: chargé   

Quality of a → particle, → body, or → system that possesses → electric charge

Past participle of "to → charge."

Bârdâr "charged," from bâr, → cahrge, + dâr "having, possessor," from dâštan "to have, to possess," Mid.Pers. dâštan, O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maitain, keep in mind," Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law," Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne," L. firmus "firm, stable," Lith. daryti "to make," PIE *dher- "to hold, support."

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