An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1259
circumstellar dust
  غبار ِ پیراستاره‌ای   
qobâr-e pirâsetâreyi

Fr.: poussière circumstellaire   

Interstellar → dust grains localized around various types of stars, such as → asymptotic giant branch stars. Circumstellar dust occurs in the form of a spherical shell or a disk and is at the origin of an → infrared excess for the central star. See also → circumstellar matter.

circumstellar; → dust.

circumstellar envelope
  پوشه‌ی ِ پیراستاره‌ای   
puše-ye pirâsetâre-yi

Fr.: enveloppe circumstellaire   

A very extensive envelope of cold gaseous materials surrounding evolved cool stars, notably → red giants, → red supergiants (→ Mira variables), or → asymptotic giant branch stars. The typical size of such envelopes is several thousands times that of the stellar radius and their temperature ranges from 1000 to10 K. Circumstellar envelopes result from mass loss from the central star (10-7 to 10-4solar masses per year) and expand with moderate velocities (10 to 15 km sec-1). The low temperature of the envelope is at the origin of the formation of molecules, which in certain conditions provide → maser emission (H2O, OH, SiO). Similarly, dust grains form in the envelope produce an → infrared excess emission.

circumstellar; → envelope.

circumstellar habitable zone
  زنار ِ زیست پذیر ِ پیراستاره‌ای   
zonâr-e zistpazir-e pirâsetâreyi

Fr.: zone habitable circumstellaire   

A zone around a star within which a planet can have temperatures that permit liquid water, depending on the luminosity of the star and the distance of the planet from it.

circumstellar; → habitable zone.

circumstellar maser
  میزر ِ پیراستاره‌ای   
meyzer-e pirâsetâreyi

Fr.: maser circumstellaire   

Maser emission from molecules in the circumstellar envelopes of → red giants, and also from regions around → protostars.

circumstellar; → maser.

circumstellar matter
  ماده‌ی ِ پیراستاره‌ای   
madde-ye pirâsetâreyi

Fr.: matière circumstellaire   

Dust, gas and plasma around stars, generally present in the form of stellar winds or nebulae ejected by the stars.

circumstellar; → matter.

circumstellar outflow
  استچان ِ پیراستاره‌ای   
ostacân-e pirâsetâreyi

Fr.: flot circumstellaire   

A stream of matter into the interstellar medium from a central star.

circumstellar; → outflow.

circumstellar shell
  پوسته‌ی ِ پیراستاره‌ای   
puste-ye pirâsetâreyi

Fr.: coquille circumstellaire   

A shell of dust, molecules, and neutral gas around an evolved star resulting from an intensive mass loss phase, such as the asymptotic giant branch phase for low- and intermediate mass stars and LBVs or supernovae for massive stars.

circumstellar; → shell.

circumzenithal arc
  کمان ِ پیراسرسویی   
kamân-e pirâsarsui

Fr.: arc circumzénithal   

A colorful halo centered on the zenith, appearing when the solar elevation above the horizon is not too high (< 32°).

circum-; → zenithal; → arc.

  اینسوماهی، اینسومانگی   
insumâhi, insumângi

Fr.: cislunaire   

Lying between the Earth and the orbit of the Lune. → translunar.

L. cis, cistra "on this side," cf. Gk. ekeinos "that person," E. he, it, O.H.G. he.

Insuumâhi, insumângi, from insu "this side," from in "this" + su "side" + mâhi, mângilunar, → moon.

šahr (#)

Fr.: ville, cité   

Any large town or populous place.

M.E. cite, from O.Fr. cite "town, city," from L. civitas "citizenry; community," from civis "ative, townsman;" from PIE *kei- "to lie; bed."

Šahr "city," from Mid.Pers. šahr "land, country, city;" O.Pers. xša- "to rule," pati-xša- "to have lordship over," Xšyāršan- "hero among kings" or "ruling over heroes" the proper name of the Achaemenid emperor Helenized as Xerxes, upari.xšay- "to rule over," xšāyaθiya- "king;" Mid.Pers. šâh "king," pâdixšâ(y) "ruler; powerful; authoritative;" Mod.Pers. šâh "king," pâdšâh "protecting lord, emperor, monarch, king," šâyestan "to be worth, suit, fit;" Av. xšā(y)- "to rule, have power," xšayati "has power, rules," xšāyô "power;" cf. Skt. ksā- "to rule, have power," ksáyati "possesses;" Gk. ktaomai "I acquire," ktema "piece of property;" PIE base *tkeh- "to own, obtain."


Fr.: civil   

Of or relating to citizens and their interrelations with one another or with the state.

M.E., from L. civilis "of or proper to a citizen," from civis "citizen, townsman," from PIE *kei- "to lie, homestead."

Šârin, from šâr "city," variant šahr; Mid.Pers. šahr "city, country, land" (O.Pers./Av. xšaθra- "kingship, kingdom," (Skt. ksatra-), from xšay-, "to rule;" cf. Skt. ksayati "possesses;" Gk. ktaomai "I acquire," ktema "piece of property") + -in suffix of adjectives, relations and agent nouns (as in qamin "sorrowful," nušin "sweet, agreeable (thing)."

civil time
  زمان ِ شارین   
zamân-e šârin

Fr.: temps civil   

Mean solar time.

civil; → time.

civil twilight
  نیمتاب ِ شارین   
nimtâb-e šârin

Fr.: crépuscule civil   

The time between sunset or sunrise and the moment when the Sun's center lies 6° below the horizon. → astronomical twilight.

civil; → twilight.


Fr.: civilisation   

1) An advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, knowledge, production, and legal organization has been reached. The people or nations that have reached such a state.
2) The act or process of civilizing or being civilized.

verbal noun of → civilize.


Fr.: 1) civiliser; 2) se civiliser   

1) To cause to evolve out of a primitive state as to technical, moral, or intellectual matters.
2) To acquire the customs and manners of a civil community.

civil + → -ize.

  شارین‌مند، شارینیده   
šârinmand, šârinidé

Fr.: civilisé   

1) Of a society or country, having well-organized laws and rules about way of life.
2) Cultured, polite.

Past participle of → civilize.

  ۱) زویه؛ ۲) زوییدن   
1) zuyé 2) zuyidan

Fr.: 1) réclamation, revendication; 2) réclamer, revendiquer   

1a) A demand for something as due; an assertion of a right or an alleged right.
1b) An assertion of something as a fact.
2a) To demand by or as by virtue of a right; demand as a right or as due.
2b) To assert and demand the recognition of (
See also: → acclaim, → declaim, → proclaim.

M.E. claimen, from O.Fr. clamer "to call, name, describe; claim; complain," from L. clamare "to cry out, shout, proclaim," from PIE *kele- "to shout;" cf. Skt. usakala "cock," literally "dawn-calling;" Middle Irish cailech "cock;" Gk. kalein "to call;" L. calare "to announce solemnly;" O.H.G. halan "to call;" O.E. hlowan "to make a noise like a cow;" Lith. kalba "language."

Zuyidan, from zu- "to call;" cf. Av. zu- "to call;" O.Pers. (+ pati) zu- "to proclaim;" Sogd. 'zw- "to call;" Pashtu zwag "noise, clamour;" Skt. havi "to call upon, invoke;" O.C.S. zvati; Slov. zvati; Toch. B kwā- "to call out to, invite" (Cheung 2007).

Clapeyron equation
  هموگش ِ کلاپرون   
hamugeš-e Clapeyron

Fr.: équation de Clapeyron   

An equation that relates the temperature and pressure dependence of phases in equilibrium with the heat interaction and volume change associated with a phase change: dP/dT = L/T ΔV, where dP/dT is the slope of the coexistence curve, L is the → latent heat, T is the temperature, and ΔV is the volume change of the phase transition.

Named after Émile Clapeyron (1799-1864), a French engineer and physicist, one of the founders of → thermodynamics; → equation.

  آرونش، رونه‌کرد   
âruneš, runekard

Fr.: clarification   

The action of making a statement or situation less confused and more comprehensible.

Verbal noun of → clarify.

  آرونیدن، رونه کردن   
ârunidan, runé kardan

Fr.: clarifier   

1) To make (an idea, statement, etc.) clear or intelligible; to free from ambiguity.
2) To remove solid matter from (a liquid); to make into a clear or pellucid liquid (

clear; → -fy.

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