An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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Number of Results: 1295
charge bleeding
  سرریز ِ بار   
sarriz-e bâr

Fr.: étalement de charge   

The heavy saturation of CCD pixels whereby electrons spill over up and down the column; also called blooming.

chrge; bleeding, from Bleed, from O.E. bledan, from P.Gmc. *blothjan "emit blood" (cf. Ger. bluten), from *blotham "blood", PIE root bhel- "to bloom, thirve".

Sarriz "overflow", from sar "head" (Mid.Pers. sar, Av. sarah- "head," Skt. siras- "head," Gk. kara "head," keras "horn," Mod.Pers. sarun "horn," L. cerebrum "brain;" PIE *ker- "head, horn") + riz present stem of rixtan "to pour; to flow; to cast" (Mid.Pers. rēxtan and rēcitan "to flow," Av. raēk- "to leave, set free; to yield, transfer," infinitive *ricyā, Mod.Pers; rig in morderig "heritage" (literally, "left by the dead"), Skt. rinakti "he leaves," riti- "stream; motion, course," L. rivus "stream, brook," Old Church Slavic rēka "river," Rus. reka "river," Goth. rinnan "run, flow," rinno "brook," O.E. ridh "stream;" PIE base *rei- "to flow; to run").

charge carrier
  برنده‌ی ِ بار، باربر   
barande-ye bâr (#), bârbar (#)

Fr.: porteur de charges   

A mobile particle carrying an electric charge. In semiconductors, a mobile electron or hole. Also called carrier.

charge; → carrier.

charge conjugation
  همیوغش ِ بار   
hamyuqeš-e bâr (#)

Fr.: conjugaison de charges   

In particle physics, an operation that changes a particle to its antiparticle in equations describing subatomic particles or, equivalently, reverses its charge and magnetic moment.

charge; → conjugation.

charge density
  چگالی ِ بار   
cagâli-ye bâr

Fr.: densité de charge   

The → electric charge per unit volume in space, or per unit area on a surface, or per unit length of a line. They are respectively called volume- (ρ), surface- (σ), or line (λ) charge density.

charge; → density.

charge distribution
  واباژش ِ بار   
vâbâžeš-e bâr

Fr.: distribution des charges   

The way a number of → electric charges are arranged in space with respect to the point of observation.

charge; → distribution.

charge exchange
  گهولش ِ بار   
gahuleš-e bâr

Fr.: échande de charge   

A collisional process in which an → ion collides with a neutral → atom or → molecule and captures one of its electrons. One of the most important charge-exchange processes occurring in the → interstellar medium is: O+ + H → H+ + O + 0.020 eV.

charge; → exchange.

charge invariance
  ناورتایی ِ بار   
nâvartâyi-ye bâr

Fr.: invariance de charge   

The → electric charge carried by an object is independent of the → velocity of the object with respect to the → observer. In other words, the charge is the same in any → frame of reference.

charge; → invariance.

charge symmetry
  همامونی ِ بار   
hamâmuni-ye bâr

Fr.: symétrie de charge   

Same as → charge conjugation and → C-symmetry.

charge; → symmetry.

charge trap
  تله‌ی ِ بار   
tale-ye bâr

Fr.: piège à charge   

Defects or impurities in a CCD structure which prevent charges in certain pixels from being transferred to the next pixel.

charge; trap, from O.E. træppe "snare, trap," from P.Gmc. *trap-.

Talé "trap," Mid.Pers. talag "trap, snare."

charge-coupled device (CCD)
  دستگاه ِ جفسری ِ بار   
dastgâh-e jafsari-ye bâr, sisidi

Fr.: dispositif à transfert de charge   

A solid-state detector that stores the electrons, produced by incident photons, in potential wells at the surface of a semiconductor. The packages of charge are moved about the surface by being transferred to similar adjacent potential wells. The wells are controlled by the manipulation of voltage applied to surface electrodes.

charge; coupled adj. from → couple; → device.

charge-injection device (CID)
  دستگاه ِ درشانش ِ بار   
dastrgâh-e daršâneš-e bâr

Fr.: dispositif à injection de charge   

A charge-transfer device that passes along stored charges positioned at predetermined locations; it is used as an image sensor in which the image points are accessed by reference to their horizontal and vertical coordinates.

charge; → injection; → device.

charge-parity symmetry
  همامونی ِ بار-همالی   
hamâmuni-ye bâr-hamâli

Fr.: symétrie charge-parité   

The laws of physics should be the same if a particle is interchanged with its → antiparticle (→ charge conjugation), or swapped for its mirror image (→ parity symmetry). It is known that charge-parity (CP) symmetry holds for interactions involving → electromagnetism, → gravitation, and → strong interactions, but CP violation is known to occur during → weak interactions involved in → radio decay. Same as → CP-symmetry.

charge; → parity; → symmetry.

charge-transfer device
  دستگاه ِ تراوژ ِ بار   
dastgâh-e tarâvaž-e bâr

Fr.: dispositif de transfert de charge   

A semi-conductor device that relays stored charges positioned at predetermined locations, such as charge-coupled or charge-injection devices.

charge; → transfer; → device.

charge-transfer efficiency (CTE)
  کارایی ِ تراوژ ِ بار   
kârâyi-ye tarâvaž-e bâr

Fr.: efficacité de transfert de charge   

Fraction of the original charge which is successfully transferred from one pixel to the next in one CCD cycle.

charge; → transfer; → efficiency.

charged
  باردار   
bârdâr (#)

Fr.: chargé   

Quality of a → particle, → body, or → system that possesses → electric charge

Past participle of "to → charge."

Bârdâr "charged," from bâr, → cahrge, + dâr "having, possessor," from dâštan "to have, to possess," Mid.Pers. dâštan, O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maitain, keep in mind," Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law," Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne," L. firmus "firm, stable," Lith. daryti "to make," PIE *dher- "to hold, support."

charged particle
  ذره‌ی ِ باردار   
zarre-ye bârdâr (#)

Fr.: particule chargée   

Any particle containing either a → positive or → negative → electric charge.

charged; → particle.

Chariklo
  خاریکلو   
Xâriklo

Fr.: Chariklo   

An → asteroid that belongs to the class of → Centaurs (discovered through stellar → occultation observations). At just 250 km across, Chariklo is the smallest body so far found to have rings. There are two dense rings, with respective widths of about 7 and 3 km, → optical depth of 0.4 and 0.06, and orbital radii of 391 and 405 km (see F. Braga-Ribas et al. Nature, 2014, 26 March).

From Khariklo, the name of a nymph in Greek mythology, the wife of → Chiron and the daughter of → Apollo.

Charles' law
  قانون ِ شارل   
qânun-e Charles (#)

Fr.: loi de Charles   

The volume of a fixed mass of any gas increases for each degree rise in temperature by a constant fraction of the volume at 0° C, the pressure being constant throughout.

Named after Jacques Charles (1746-1823), French physicist, who first discovered the law, and who was responsible for the first balloon ascents using hydrogen.

Charon
  خارون   
Xâron (#)

Fr.: Charon   

The largest satellite of Pluto. It is about 1,040 km across, roughly half Pluto's diameter. Charon is unusual in that it is the largest moon with respect to its primary planet in the Solar System. Moreover, the Pluto-Charon system is extraordinary because the center of mass lies in open space between the two, a characteristic of a double planet system. Pluto and Charon are also tidally locked in a synchronous orbit. Pluto's rotational period is 6.39 Earth days. It takes 6.39 days for Charon to make one revolution around Pluto. Thus, the two bodies continuously face each other. Also called Pluto I.

In Gk. mythology, Xαρον (Charon) was a figure who ferried the dead across the river Styx into Hades (the underworld).

Charpak's detector
  آشکارگر ِ شرپک   
âškârgar-e Charpak

Fr.: détecteur de Charpak   

An elementary particle detector using a special apparatus capable of operating at high rates. The detector consists of an → array of many closely spaced parallel wires, or → anodes, in an enclosure filled with a carefully chosen gas. The wires, being placed between two → cathode plates, are under high voltage. Each wire acts as an independent → proportional counter. The particle that passes through the chamber will ionize surrounding gaseous atoms. The resulting ions and electrons are accelerated by the electric field around the wire, causing a localized cascade of ionization which brings about an electric current proportional to the energy of the detected particle. Previous detectors, such as the → bubble chamber, could record the tracks left by particles on photographic emulsions at the rate of only one or two per second. In comparison, the multiwire chamber records up to one million tracks per second in three dimensions with an accuracy of a tenth of a millimeter and moreover sends the data directly to a computer for analysis. The speed and precision of the multiwire chamber has revolutionized high-energy physics. For instance it was crucial in finding the predicted → W boson and → Z boson of the → electroweak interaction theory. Charpak's chamber also has applications in medicine, biology, and industry. Also called → multiwire proportional chamber.

In honor of Georges Charpak (1924-2010), a French physicist, who built the first detector of this type in 1968. He received the Nobel Prize for physics in 1992; → detector.

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