An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1234
classical logic
  گوییک ِ کلاسیک   
guyik-e kelâsik

Fr.: logique classique   

The traditional logic in which → sets are sharply defined (→ crisp set) for example, the number of students registered for a course, or the names beginning with P in a given telephone directory. Classical logic also defines relations between sets of → propositions. Consider for example two sets: elephants and mammals, a simple proposition would be the assertion that all elephants are mammals, that is E ⊂ M, where E is the elephant set and M is the mammal set. The classical logic proposition is either true or false. Compare with → fuzzy logic.

classical; → logic.

classical mechanics
  مکانیک کلاسیک   
mekânik kelâsik (#)

Fr.: mécanique classique   

The branch of physical science which deals with the motions of bodies travelling at velocities that are very much less than that of light in a vacuum. Same as → Newtonian mechanics.

classical; → mechanics.

classical physics
  فیزیک ِ کلاسیک   
fizik-e kelâsik (#)

Fr.: physique classique   

Physics not taking into account → quantum mechanics or Einstein's → relativity theory. Classical physics includes the branches developed before the beginning of the 20th cantury: Mechanics, Acoustics, Optics, Thermodynamics, and Electricity and Magnetism. Most of classical physics is concerned with matter and energy on the normal scale of observation.

classical; → physics.

classical T Tauri star
  ستاره‌ی ِ T-گاو ِ کلاسیک   
setâre-ye T-Gâv-e kelâsik

Fr.: étoile T Tauri classique   

A → T Tauri star in which → accretion from a → circumstellar disk is responsible for ultraviolet and infrared excess emission and for a moderate to strong emission line spectrum superimposed on the photospheric spectrum. Classical T Tauri stars probably evolve into → weak-line T Tauri stars when their disks are fully accreted by the stars.

classical; → T Tauri star.

classification
  رده بندی   
radebandi (#)

Fr.: classification   

The systematic grouping of astronomical objects into categories on the basis of physical, morphological, or evolutionary characteristics.

Classification, from O.Fr., from classifier, from → class + -fier, from L. -ficare, root of facere "to make, do;" PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do" (cf. Skt. dadhati "puts, places;" Av. dadaiti "he puts," O.Pers. ada "he made," Gk. tithenai "to put, set, place."

Radebandi, from radé, → class, + bandi, verbal noun of bastan "to bind, shut; to get, acquire, incur," from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut;" Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie;" cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" Ger. binden, E. bind, → band; PIE base *bhendh- "to bind."

clathrate
  کلاترات   
klâtrât

Fr.: clathrate   

A chemical substance in which a molecule of one compound fills a cavity within the crystal lattice of another compound. An example is clathrate hydrate, a special type of gas hydrate in which small molecules (typically gases) are trapped inside "cages" of hydrogen bonded water molecules. Large amounts of methane have been discovered both in permafrost formations and under the ocean floor. Similarly oceans contain large quantities of trapped CO2, which dissociate when the temperature rises sufficiently.

From L. clathratus, p.p. of clathrarer "to fit with bars," from clathra "bars, lattice," from Gk. kleithron " bar," from kleiein "to close."

clause
  بند   
band (#)

Fr.: clause   

1) Grammar: A syntactic construction containing a subject and predicate and forming part of a sentence or constituting a whole simple sentence.
2) A distinct article or provision in a contract, treaty, will, or other formal or legal written document (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. clause, from M.L. clausa "conclusion," used in the sense of classical L. clausula "the end, a closing, termination," also "end of a sentence or a legal argument," from clausa, from p.p. of claudere "to close, to shut, to conclude," → closure.

Band present stem of bastan "to close, to fasten, to bind," → closure.

Clausius equation
  هموگش ِ کلاؤزیوس   
hamugeš-e Clausius

Fr.: équation de Clausius   

A first-order improvement on the → ideal gas law that corrects for the finite volume of molecules.

After Rudolf Clausius (1822-1888), a German physicist and mathematician, → equation.

Clausius's postulate
  فراوس ِ کلاؤزیوس   
farâvas-e Clausius

Fr.: postulat de Clausius   

If heat flows by conduction from body A to another body B, then a transformation whose only final result is to transfer heat from B to A is impossible. Clausius's postulate is a formulation of the → second law of thermodynamics. It is also equivalent to → Kelvin's postulate.

Clausius equation; → postulate.

Clausius-Clapeyron equation
  هموگش ِ کلاؤزیوس-کلاپرون   
hamugeš-e Clausius-Clapeyron

Fr.: équation de Clausius-Clapeyron   

An approximation of the → Clapeyron equation for liquid-vapor equilibrium that incorporates the → ideal gas law and states that the logarithm of vapor pressure is inversely proportional to temperature.

Clausius equation; → Clapeyron equation.

clay
  رُس   
ros (#)

Fr.: argile   

A broad class of hydrous → silicate minerals that has the tetrahedral silicate groups linked in sheets. Clay commonly forms as a product of rock weathering. Deposits of phyllosilicates, such as chamosite and nontronite, recently identified on Mars are attributed to the action of liquid water in the past history of this planet.

O.E. clæg "stiff, sticky earth; clay," from PIE base *glei- "to stick together;" cf. Gk. gloios "sticky substance," L. glus, gluten "glue," O.Slav. glina "clay." The Pers. gel "clay, mud," Mid.Pers. gil "clay" may belong to this family.

Ros, variant rost "clay," of unknown origin.

clear
  رونه   
runé (#)

Fr.: clair   

1) Free from darkness, obscurity, or cloudiness.
2) Transparent; pellucid.
3) Without discoloration, defect, or blemish (Dictionary.com). → clear night.

M.E. clere, from O.Fr. cler, from L. clarus "clear, bright, distinct."

Runé, from Kurd. (Sorani) rûn "bright, clear," rûn kirdin "to explain," variant of rowšan, → bright.

clear night
  شب ِ رونه   
šab-e runé

Fr.: nuit claire   

A night sky without clouds, mist, or haze, atmospheric dust particles, and without city lights in which a sixth magnitude star is visible by naked-eye.

clear; → night.

clepsydras
  پنگان، پنگ   
pangân, pang

Fr.: clepsydre   

An ancient device for measuring time by marking the regulated flow of water through a small opening. A water clock.

L., from Gk. klepsudra, from kleptein "to steal" + hudor "water," PIE *wed- "water."

Pangân or pang was a clepsydra in Iran. It consisted of "a copper bason with a small hole in the bottom, for water in which it is placed to flow through, used for measuring time;" etymology unknown.

cliff
  تندان   
tondân (#)

Fr.: falaise   

A very high steep rock or ice face, especially one that runs along a coastline. → scarp.

M.E., O.E. clif (cf. O.S. clif, O.N. klif, O.H.G. klep, M.Du. klippe, Ger. Klippe "cliff, steep rock").

Tondân, from tond "swift, rapid, brisk," → scarp + -ân a suffix of nuance/relation.

climate
  آب-و-هوا   
âb-o-havâ

Fr.: climat   

The characteristic meteorological conditions (temperature, precipitation, and wind) and their extremes, of any place or region.

From O.Fr. climat, from L. clima, climat- "region, slope of the Earth," from Gk. klima "region, zone," from base of klinein "to slope," thus "slope of the Earth from equator to pole," from PIE base *klei- "to lean."

Âbohavâ, from âb, → water, + -o- "and" + havâ "weather" → air.

clock
  ساعت   
sâat (#)

Fr.: horloge   

A device (not carried or worn) for measuring and showing the time. See also: → hour, → gnomon, → clepsydra.

M.E. clokke "clock with bells," from O.Fr. cloque "bell" (Fr. cloche, Du. klok, Ger. Glocke), M.L. clocca "bell," of Celtic origin.

Sâat from Ar.

clocking
  زمان‌بندی   
zamân bandi

Fr.:   

Successive risings and lowerings of voltage on the electrodes of a CCD in order to move the electrons from one pixel to the next.

clockwise
  ساعت‌سو   
sâ'atsu (#)

Fr.: dans le sens des aiguilles d'une montre   

In the same direction as the rotating hands of a clock when viewed from in front.

From → clock + wise "way, manner," O.E. wise (adj.), from wis, from P.Gmc. *wisaz (cf. Du. wijs, Ger. weise "wise"), PIE base *weid-/*wid- "to see, to know;" cf. Av vaeda "I know," Skt. veda "I know," Gk. oida "I know".

Sâ'atsu, from sâ'at, → clock, + su "direction," Mid.Pers. sôg, sôk "side, direction".

close
  کیپ   
kip (#)

Fr.: serré   

Having little or no space between elements or parts, as in → close binary, → close approach; tight and compact.

M.E. clos, closed, from O.Fr., from L. clausus, p.p. of claudere "to close."

Kip "close, tight" in spoken Pers.

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