An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1244
crowdsourcing
  چپیره‌خنی   
capiré-xani

Fr.: crowdsourcing   

The process of procuring needed services by soliciting a large group of people outside the demanding company, society, or institute. Two examples of crowdsourcing in astronomy involve → variable star studies and search for → meteorites.

Combination of → crowd and → outsourcing.

crown glass
  کرون، شیشه‌ی ِ ~   
crown, šiše-ye ~ (#)

Fr.: crown, crown-glass   

An optical, alkali-lime glass which is harder than → flint glass, and has a lower → index of refraction and lower → dispersion. It is used in the production of → compound lenses.

Such named because of the crown-like shape given to the blank after the process of blowing the glass; M.E. coroune, from O.Fr. corone, from L. corona "crown," originally "wreath, garland;" cf. Gk. korone "anything curved, kind of crown;" → glass.

Crussard curve
  خم ِ کروسار   
xam-e Crussard

Fr.: courbe de Crussard   

A curve, on the pressure versus specific volume plane, representing the locus of all the theoretically possible states that can be attained by the → detonation products of an → explosive. The Crussard curve relates to the → Hugoniot curve through a translation caused by the chemical energy liberated during the detonation. The Crussard curve consists of several portions characterizing various burning regimes: detonations (strong and weak), a forbidden region, and → deflagrations (weak and strong).

Named after the French engineer Jules Louis Crussard (1876-1959), who conducted several pioneering studies in mining techniques, in particular on shock waves (Ondes de choc et onde explosive, Bulletin de la Société de l'industrie minérale de Saint-Etienne, 4e série, tome VI, 1907); → curve.

crust
  پوسته   
pusté (#)

Fr.: croûte   

Any more or less hard or stiff outer covering or surface. → Earth's crust.

M.E., from O.Fr. crouste from L. crusta "rind, crust, shell, bark;" cf. Skt. krud- "make hard, thicken;" Av. xruzdra- "hard;" Gk. kryos "icy cold," krystallos "ice, crystal;" Lett. kruwesis "frozen mud;" O.H.G. hrosa "ice, crust;" O.E. hruse "earth;" PIE base *kreus- "to begin to freeze, form a crust."

Pusté, → shell.

Crux
  چلیپا   
Calipâ (#)

Fr.: Croix   

The Southern Cross. A small but brilliant → constellation in the southern hemisphere, at 12h 30m right ascension, 60° south declination. Also known as → Southern Cross. The constellation contains four bright stars so situated that they depict the extremities of a Latin cross. Abbreviation Cru; genitive Crucis.

L. crux "cross, gibbet" is a rendering of the Gk. stauros "an upright stake or pole," in the Vulgate, the Latin translation of the Bible attributed to Saint Jerome at the end of the fourth century A.D.

Calipâ, loanword from Aramean.

cryogenics
  زمزاییک، زمزایی   
zamzâyik (#), zamzâyi (#)

Fr.: cryogénie   

A branch of physics that studies the methods of producing very low temperatures (below 150 °C) and the behavior of materials and processes at those temperatures.

From cryo- "freezing" + -gen(y) "having to do with production" + -ics.
Cryo-, from Gk. kryos "icy cold," krystallos "ice, crystal," PIE base *kreus- "to begin to freeze, form a crust;" cf. L. crusta "crust, shell, bark," Skt. krud- "make hard, thicken;" Av. xruzdra- "hard," Lett. kruwesis "frozen mud;" O.H.G. hrosa "ice, crust;" O.E. hruse "earth."
-geny, from Gk. geneia, from genes "born," cf. Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazâite, zâta- "born," cf. Skt. janati "begets, bears," L. gignere "to beget," PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget."
-ics.

Zamâzâyik, from zam "cold (weather)" + zâyi "generating" + -ik.
Mod.Pers. zam "cold," Mid.Pers. zam "winter," Av. zimô "winter," Skt. hima- "cold, frost," Ossetic zymæg/zumæg "winter," Gk. xeimon "winter," L. hiems "winter," Lith. ziema "winter," PIE *gheim- "snow, winter."
Zâyi, from zâ- present tense stem of zâdan "to give birth," Mid.Pers. zâtan, Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazâite, zâta- "born," cf. Skt. janati "begets, bears," L. gignere "to beget," PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget," as above.
-ics.

cryostat
  زمپا   
zampâ (#)

Fr.: cryostat   

An apparatus for maintaining an enclosed area at a stable low temperature especially below 0°C.

Cryostat, from cryo- "freezing," → cryogenics + suffix → -stat.

crystal
  بلور   
bolur (#)

Fr.: cristal   

A solidified substance in which the constituent atoms, ions, or molecules form a three-dimensionally periodic arrangement.

O.E. cristal "clear ice, clear mineral," from O.Fr. cristal, from L. crystallum "crystal, ice," from Gk. krystallos, from kryos "frost," from PIE base *kreus- "to begin to freeze, form a crust," → cryogenics.

Bolur, from Mid.Pers. bêlûr "crystal," Manichean Parthian bylwr, maybe of Indian origin, Pali veluriya- "a precious stone;" cf. Skt. vaidurya-, perhaps related to Tamil veliru, vilar "to become pale," or to the southern Indian city Velur, modern Belur. The Mid.Pers. word is perhaps the carrier between the Indian word and the Gk. beryllos, which has given rise to L. beryllus, O.Fr. beryl, E. beryl "the beryllium aluminum silicate, Be3Al2Si6O18."

crystal lattice
  جاره‌ی ِ بلور   
jâre-ye bolur

Fr.: réseau cristallin   

The network of the points in space at which the atoms, molecules, or ions of a → crystal are regularly repeated.

crystal; → lattice.

crystal structure
  ساختار ِ بلور   
sâxtâr-e bolur

Fr.: structure de cristal   

The geometric framework to which a crystal may be referred and the arrangement of atoms or electron density distribution relative to that framework, usually determined by X-ray diffraction measurements.

crystal; → structure.

crystal system
  راژمان ِ بلور، ~ بلوری   
râžmân-e bolur, ~ boluri

Fr.: système cristallin   

One of seven possible basic crystal types that is defined by the relations between the axis lengths and angles of its unit cell. Crystal systems can produce an infinite → lattice by successive translations in three-dimensional space so that each lattice point has an identical environment. The seven crystal systems are: → cubic, → orthorhombic, tetragonal, trigonal, hexagonal, monoclinic, and triclinic.

crystal; → system.

crystalline
  بلوری، بلورین   
boluri, bolurin

Fr.: cristallin   

1) Of or like crystal; clear; transparent.
2) Formed by → crystallization.
3) Composed of crystals.
4) Pertaining to crystals or their formation (Dictionary.com).

Adjective from → crystal.

crystalline lens
  عدسی ِ چشم   
adasi-ye cašm (#)

Fr.: cristallin   

A → doubly convex, → transparent body in the → eye, situated behind the → iris, that focuses incident light on the → retina (Dictionary.com).

crystalline; → lens; → eye.

crystalline structure
  ساختار ِ بلورین   
sâxtâr-e bolurin

Fr.: structure cristalline   

An arrangement and interrelationship of parts that is of → crystalline nature.

crystalline; → structure.

crystallinity
  بلورینی   
bolurini

Fr.: cristallinité   

1) A state of molecular structure in some resins attributed to the existence of solid crystals with a definite geometric form.
2) The percentage of a polymer sample that has formed crystals (J. W. Gooch, Encyclopedic Dictionary of Polymers).

crystalline; → -ity.

crystallization
  بلورش   
bolureš

Fr.: cristallisation   

A process by which a homogeneous solution becomes crystal.

Noun from crystallize, → crystal.

Noun from bolur, from verb boluridan "to crystallize" + verbal noun suffix -eš.

crystallography
  بلورشناسی   
boluršenâsi (#)

Fr.: cristallographie   

The science of forms, properties, and structure of crystals.

crystal; → -graphy; → -logy.

CSPN
  ستار‌ی ِ مرکزی ِ میغ ِ سیاره‌ای   
setâre-ye markazi-ye miq-e sayyâre-yi

Fr.: étoile centrale de nébuleuse planétaire   

An evolved → hot star which is responsible for the ionization of a → planetary nebula. Planetary nebulae result from mass ejection by evolved stars undergoing violent instabilities. CSPNe are extremely hot, with → effective temperatures ranging from 30,000 to 120,000 K. They evolve rapidly toward the → white dwarf stage, while the planetary nebulae continue expanding with a small expansion velocity of about 25 km s-1, becoming progressively thinner and thus eventually invisible after some 104 years. The initial masses of these stars range from about 1 to 8 solar masses. CSPNe are not a homogeneous group and present a large variety of spectral characteristics. Many of CSPNe display emission lines, some of them with spectra resembling those of → WC Wolf-Rayet. Although superficially similar, they differ from classical W-R stars in their degenerate structure, much lower masses, a wider range of temperatures, and limitation almost exclusively to carbon-rich stars. Some CSPNe show → weak emission-lines (wels). A considerable fraction of both groups are hydrogen deficient. However, some wels may be H-rich despite having emission lines. The evolutionary status of the [WR]-type stars is still very uncertain, and it is unclear whether there is any evolutionary relation to the wels. CSPNe have a strong → stellar wind composed of helium, carbon, and oxygen. Some of them are binary systems. The study of CSPNe is important for understanding of → post-AGB stellar evolution.

CSPN, short for → Central, → Star of → Planetary Nebula.

cube
  کاب   
kâb

Fr.: cube   

Geometry: The regular solid whose faces are six squares.
Algebra: The third power of a quantity; the product of three equal factors (a . a . a = a3).

From L. cubus, from Gk. kubos "a cube, a die; cavity before the hip," kubiton "elbow;" cf. Skt. kubra- "hole in the earth, pit;" Goth. hups "hip;" from PIE base *keu- "to bend."

The currently used term in Pers. is moka'ab (مکعب), loan from Ar., from ka'b (کعب) "talus, anklebone, heel; die." There are several Pers. equivalents for the concepts "talus, anklebone; die," one of which qâb, variants qâp and in Tabari kâb "heel, talus." This dictionary adopts kâb, which has already been introduced by other sources.

cube root
  ریشه‌ی ِ کابی   
riše-ye kâbi

Fr.: racine cubique   

A number which taken three times as a factor produces another number, the cube of the given factor.

cube; → root.

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