An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1234
CCD shutter
  بستار ِ سی‌سی‌دی   
bastâr-e si-si-di, bastâvar-e ~

Fr.: obturateur CCD   

A mechanical device of a CCD camera that controls the duration of a an exposure, as by opening and closing to allow the stellar light to expose the CCD detector.

Shutter, from to shut, from O.E. scyttan from W.Gmc. *skutjanan + → -er.

CDM model
  نگره‌ی ِ ماده‌ی ِ سرد ِ تاریک   
negare-ye mâdde-ye sard-e târik

Fr.: théorie de la matière noire froide   

A → cosmological model that attributes the formation of structures in the → early Universe to an exotic particle (→ cold dark matter) which was → non-relativistic at the time of → decoupling. According to this model, CDM began clumping together soon after the → Big Bang, while the → baryonic matter was still coupled with the → photons, and prevented to condense. Smaller → clumps of dark matter merged to form larger and larger clumps, and when the normal visible matter had decoupled from the photons, at the → recombination era (380,000 years after the Big Bang), it collapsed onto these dark matter clumps. In this way, the dark matter clumps acted as seeds for galaxy formation.

cold; → dark; → matter; → theory.

âsmâni (#)

Fr.: céleste   

Of or relating to the sky or visible heavens.

M.E., from O.Fr., from M.L. celestialis, from L. cælestis "heavenly," from cælum "heaven, sky."

Âsmâni related to âsmân, → sky.

celestial axis
  آسه‌ی ِ آسمانی   
âse-ye âsmân (#)

Fr.: axe du monde   

The Earth's axis extended to the → celestial pole.

celestial; → axis.

celestial body
  اختر، جسم ِ آسمانی   
axtar (#), jesm-e âsmâni (#)

Fr.: corps céleste   

astronomical object.

celestial; → body.

celestial coordinates
  هماراهای ِ آسمانی   
hamârâhâ-ye âsmâni (#)

Fr.: coordonées célestes   

Any system of coordinates used to define a point on the celestial sphere (zenith distance, altitude, celestial latitude, celestial longitude, etc.).

celestial; → coordinates.

celestial equator
  هموگار ِ آسمانی   
hamugâr-e âsmâni

Fr.: équateur céleste   

An imaginary great circle on the sky half-way between the → celestial poles. It is the projection of the → equator of the Earth on the sky.

celestial; → equator.

celestial globe
  گوی ِ آسمانی   
gu-ye âsmâni

Fr.: globe céleste   

A small globe representing the celestial sphere, on which the apparent positions of the stars are indicated.

celestial; → globe.

celestial horizon
  افق ِ آسمانی   
ofoq-e âsmâni (#)

Fr.: horizon céleste   

A great circle on the → celestial sphere having a plane that passes through the center of the Earth at a right angle to the line formed by an observer's → zenith and → nadir.

celestial; → horizon.

celestial latitude
  ورونای ِ آسمانی   
varunâ-ye âsmâni

Fr.: latitude céleste   

Angular distance → north or → south measured from the → ecliptic to a → celestial object.

celestial; → latitude.

celestial longitude
  درژنای ِ آسمانی   
derežnâ-ye âsmâni

Fr.: longitude céleste   

Angular distance to an object measured eastward along the → ecliptic from the → vernal equinox.

celestial; → longitude.

Derežnâ, → longitude; âsmânicelestial.

celestial mechanics
  مکانیک ِ آسمانی   
mekânik-e âsmâni (#)

Fr.: mécanique céleste   

The branch of astronomy that deals with the calculation of motions of celestial bodies under the action of their mutual gravitational attractions.

celestial; → mechanics.

Mekânik, → mechanics; âsmâni, → celestial.

celestial meridian
  نیمروزان ِ آسمانی   
nimruzân-e âsmâni (#)

Fr.: méridien céleste   

The great circle on the → celestial sphere, passing through the two → celestial poles and the observer's → zenith.

celestial; → meridian.

celestial object
  بر‌آخت ِ آسمانی   
barâxt-e âsmâni

Fr.: objet céleste   

astronomical object.

celestial; → object.

celestial pole
  قطب ِ آسمان   
qotb-e âsmân (#)

Fr.: pole céleste   

The point of the sky, north or south, where the projection of the Earth's axis of rotation intersects the → celestial sphere. They are at 90° relative to the → celestial equator. Because of → precession, the celestial poles describe a circle around the ecliptic's poles every 25,800 years.

celestial; → pole.

celestial sphere
  سپهر ِ آسمانی، کره‌ی ِ ~   
sepehr-e âsmân (#), kore-ye ~ (#)

Fr.: sphère céleste   

An imaginary sphere, of large but indefinite dimension, used as a basis to define the position coordinates of celestial bodies. The center can be the Earth, the observer, or any other point which plays the role of origin for a given system of coordinates. Seen from the Earth, the celestial sphere rotates around the → celestial axis every 23h 56m 04s (the → sidereal day), as a result of the Earth's rotation. Two important circles on the celestial sphere are the → celestial equator and the → ecliptic. The angle between them, about 23.40 degrees, is known as the → obliquity of the ecliptic. The celestial equator and the ecliptic intersect at two points, → vernal equinox and → autumnal equinox. The positions of the → celestial poles and therefore that of the → celestial equator move gradually on the celestial sphere, due to → precession.

celestial; → sphere.

  ۱، ۲) یاخته؛ ۳) پیل، باتری   
1, 2) yâxté (#); 3) pil, bâtri (#)

Fr.: 1, 2) cellule; 3) élément, pile   

1) General: A small compartment or bounded area forming part of a whole.
2) Fluid mechanics: A body of fluid (air, liquid, or → plasma) in which the process of → convection proceeds.
3) Electricity: A device for producing electric current by chemical action.

From L. cella "small room, hut," related to L. celare "to hide, conceal," from PIE base *kel- "conceal" (cf. Skt. cala "hut, house," Gk. kalia "hut, nest," kalyptein "to cover").

Yâxté "small room, closet," etymology unknown.

Celsius scale
  مرپل ِ سلسیوس   
marpel-e Celsiu

Fr.: échelle de Celsius   

The official name of the centigrade temperature scale with the → ice point as 0° and the → boiling point of water as 100°. The Celsius scale uses a degree (the unit of temperature) which has the same magnitude as the degree on the → Kelvin scale: TC = TK - 273.15. See also → Fahrenheit scale, → Rankine scale, → Reaumur scale.

In honor of Anders Celsius (1701-1744), Swedish astronomer, originator of the first centigrade temperature scale. However, in his original scale Celsius had 100° for the ice point and 0° for the steam point; → scale.

Centaur asteroid
  سیارک ِ کنتاؤر   
sayyârak-e Kentâwr (#)

Fr.: astéroïde Centaure   

An → asteroid whose orbit around the Sun lies typically between the orbits of → Jupiter and → Neptune Neptune (5 to 30 → astronomical units). The first Centaur, called → Chiron, was discovered in 1977, but since then more than 100 roughly similar objects have been found. Three centaurs, Chiron, 60558 Echeclus, and 166P/NEAT 2001 T4, have been found to display → cometary  → comas. Chiron and 60558 Echeclus are now classified as both asteroids and → comets. Most of the Centaur asteroids are probably dormant comets from the → Kuiper belt which have been pulled in by the gravity of → outer planets.

Centaurus; → asteroid.

Kentâwros (#)

Fr.: Centaure   

The Centaur. A → constellation in the southern hemisphere covering an extensive area of about 1060 square degrees from R.A. 11 h to 15 h and Dec. -30° to -64°. Abbreviation: Cen, genitive form: Centauri. Centaurus is the ninth largest constellation in the sky, but it does not contain any → Messier objects. The brightest star in constellation is → Alpha Centauri which is also the third brightest star in the sky. Beta Centauri, the second brightest star in Centaurus, also called → Hadar, is the eleventh brightest star in night sky. Among other bright stars of the constellation are: Menkent (θ Cen), γ Cen, ε Cen, and η Cen. There are three → meteor showers associated with the constellation: the Alpha Centaurids, the Omicron Centaurids, and the Theta Centaurids. The constellation contains several extragalactic objects, among which: Centaurus A (NGC 5128), Omega Centauri, and NGC 5139.

L. centaurus, from Gk. kentauros, cf. Av. gandarəwa- "a mythical monster killed by Kərəsâspa," Skt. gandharva- "name of mythical beings related with Soma." In Gk. mythology, centaurs were half-man half-horse creatures living on Mount Pelion in Thessaly, northern Greece. They were followers of the wine god Dionysus and well known for drunkenness and carrying off helpless young maidens.

Kentâwros, from Gk. "Kentauros." Arabicized Qenturis (قنطورس).

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