An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1251
churn
  ۱) گویس؛ ۲) گویسیدن   
1) gavis; 2) gavisidan

Fr.: 1) baratte; 2) baratter   

1) A container or machine in which cream or milk is agitated to make butter.
2) To shake or agitate with violence or continued motion (Dictionary.com).

M.E. chirne, O.E. cyrne cyr(i)n; cognate with M.L.G. kerne, O.N. kjarni, kirna, may be related to → kernel because of the "grainy" appearance of churned cream.

Gavis "churn," of unknown origin.

churning
  گویسش   
gaviseš

Fr.: barattage   

In → galactic dynamics models, the process of gaining or losing → angular momentum by stars mostly at the → Lindblad resonances without gaining random motion. Figuratively, transient → spiral waves in → galactic disks churn the stars and gas in a manner that largely preserves the overall angular momentum distribution and leads to little increase in random motion. Churning is the main reason for → radial migration of stars. See also → blurring (J. A. Sellwood & J. J. Binney, 2002, astro-ph/0203510 and references therein).

Verbal noun of → churn.

CI chondrite
  کوندریت ِ IC   
kondrit-e CI

Fr.: chondrite CI   

A group of very rare → carbonaceous chondrites which are unusual because they do not have → chondrules. They are thought to be the most primitive of all meteorites. As a result of alteration, they lack chondrules and → CAIs, but contain up to 20% water, as well as various alteration minerals. Only five CI chondrite falls are known, and of these, only four are massive enough for multiple chemical analyses. The Orgueil meteorite is the most massive of CI chondrites.

C for → carbon, I stands for Ivuna meteorite that fell in Tanzania in 1938; → chondrite.

cinnabar
  شنگرف   
šangarf (#)

Fr.: cinabre   

A mineral, mercuric sulphide, HgS, which is the primary → ore for the production of → mercury. It is a → crystalline solid with a bright → red color. Cinnabar is highly toxic.

From O.Fr. cinabre, from L. cinnabaris, from Gk. kinnabari, maybe ultimately from Pers. šangarf "red lead, cinnabar," of unknown origin.

circadian
  پیراروزی   
pirâruzi

Fr.: circardien   

Being, having, characterized by, or occurring in approximately 24-hour periods or cycles, as of biological activity or function (Merriam-Webster.com).

From L. circa "about," → circum-, + diem, accusative singular of dies "day," → diurnal.

circadian rhythm
  ریتم ِ پیراروزی   
ritm-e pirâruzi

Fr.: rythme circardien   

Any of several physical, mental and behavioral changes that follow a roughly 24-hour cycle, responding primarily to light and darkness in an organism's environment. Circadian rhythms are found in most living things, including animals, plants and many tiny microbes.

circadian; → rhythm.

Circinus
  پرگار   
Pargâr (#)

Fr.: Compas   

The Compasses. A small, faint → constellation in the southern hemisphere near → Musca and → Triangulum Australe, at about 15h right ascension and 60° south declination. Abbreviation: Cir; genitive Circini.

L. circinus "pair of compasses," from circus "circle, ring," from or akin to Gk. kirkos "a circle," from PIE *kirk- from base *(s)ker- "to turn, bend" (from which derives also Pers. carx "wheel, cycle," → cycle).

Pargâr, → compasses.

circle
  پرهون، دایره   
parhun (#), dâyeré (#)

Fr.: cercle   

A closed curve lying in a plane and so constructed that all its points are equally distant from a fixed point in the plane.

From O.Fr. cercle, from L. circulus "small ring," dim. of circus "ring," from or akin to Gk. kirkos "a circle," from PIE *kirk- from base *(s)ker- "to turn, bend," related to Pers. carx "wheel, everything revolving in an orbit, circular motion, chariot."

Parhun "circle" in Mod.Pers. classical texts, from Proto-Iranian *pari-iâhana- "girdle, belt," from pari-, variant pirâ-, → circum-, + iâhana- "to girdle," cf. Av. yâh- "to girdle." The Pers. word pirâhan "shirt" is a variant of parhun. Gk. cognate zone "girdle."
Dâyeré, from Ar.

circle of altitude
  پرهون ِ فرازا   
parhun-e farâzâ

Fr.: almucantar   

A small circle on the celestial sphere parallel to the horizon. The locus of all points of a given altitude. Also called → almucantar, → altitude circle, → parallel of altitude.

circle; → altitude.

circle of latitude
  پرهون ِ ورونا   
parhun-e varunâ

Fr.: parallèle   

1) A circle of the celestial sphere, parallel to the ecliptic.
2) A circle on the terrestrial surface parallel to the equator, along which longitude is measured.

circle; → latitude.

circle of longitude
  پرهون ِ درژنا   
parhun-e derežnâ

Fr.: méridien   

1) A great circle of the celestial sphere, from the pole to the ecliptic at right angles to the plane of the ecliptic.
2) A great circle on the terrestrial surface that meets the North and South poles and connects all places of the same longitude.

circle; → longitude.

circuit
  گردراه، برقراه   
gardrâh, barqrâh (#)

Fr.: circuit   

1) General: A closed, usually circular line that goes around an object or area.
2) Physics: → electric circuit.

From O.Fr. circuit, from L. circuitus "a going around," from stem of circuire, circumire "go around," from circum "around," → circum- + -ire "to go" (cf. Gk. ienai "to go," Skt. eti "goes," O.Pers. aitiy "goes," Av. aeiti "goes," Mod.Pers. âyad "comes," PIE *ei- "to go, to walk."

Gardrâh, from gard "turning round, revolving," from gardidan "to turn, to change" (Mid.Pers. vartitan, Av. varət- "to turn, revolve," Skt. vartati, L. vertere, O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE *werto, *wer-) + râh "way, path," from Mid.Pers. râh, râs "way, street" (Mid.Pers. rah, ras "chariot"), from Proto-Iranian *rāθa-; cf. Av. raθa- "chariot;" Skt. rátha- "car, chariot," rathyā- "road;" L. rota "wheel," rotare "to revolve, roll;" Lith. ratas "wheel;" O.H.G. rad; Ger. Rad; Du. rad; O.Ir. roth; PIE *roto- "to run, to turn, to roll").
Barqrâh, from barq, → electricity, + râh, as above.

circular
  دایره‌ای، پرهونی   
dâyere-yi (#), parhuni (#)

Fr.: circulaire   

1) Having the form of a circle.
2) Moving in or forming a circle or a circuit.

M.E. circuler, O.Fr. circuler, from L. circularis, from circulus, → circle, + -aris "-ar," variant of → -al, joined to words in which an l precedes the suffix (circular; lunar; singular).

Dâyere-yi, parhuni, from dâyeré or parhuncircle + -i adj. suffix.

circular motion
  جنبش ِ دایره‌ای، ~ پرهونی   
jonbeš-e dâyere-yi, ~ parhuni

Fr.: mouvement circulaire   

Motion in which an object moves in a circle at a constant speed. The velocity, however, changes not because the magnitude of the velocity changes, but because its direction changes. The changing velocity creates an acceleration, called → centripetal acceleration. This acceleration results from the → centripetal force.

circular; → motion.

circular polarization
  قطبش ِ پرهونی، ~ دایره‌ای   
qotbeš-e parhuni, ~ dâyereyi (#)

Fr.: polarisation circulaire   

The → polarization of an → electromagnetic radiation in which the electric field vector describes a circle about the direction of propagation at any point in the path of the radiation. Circular polarization is a combination of two perpendicular → linearly polarized waves that are 90 degrees out of phase with each other. Circular polarization may be referred to as "right-hand" or "left-hand," depending on the rotation direction as viewed by the observer.

circular; → polarization.

circular variable filter (CVF)
  پالایه‌ی ِ ورتنده‌ی ِ پرهونی، ~ ~ دایره‌ای   
pâlâye-ye vartande-ye parhuni, ~ ~ dâyereyi

Fr.: filtre circulaire variable   

Circular band-pass interference filter whose thickness and central wavelength vary along the perimeter. They are used in low-resolution spectrophotometers mainly in the infra-red.

circular; → variable; → filter.

circularly polarized light
  نور ِ قطبیده‌ی ِ دایره‌ای   
nur-e qotbide-ye dâyere-yi

Fr.: lumière polarisée circulairement   

Light exhibiting → circular polarization.

circular; → polarized; → light.

circulation
  پرهونش   
parhuneš

Fr.: circulation   

The continuous movement of something from place to place or in an enclosed space. → meridional circulation.

M.E. circulacioun, from M.Fr. circulation or directly from L. circulationem, from circulare "to form a circle," from circulus "small ring," → circle.

Parhuneš, verbal noun from parhunidan, from parhun, → circle.

circum-
  پیرا-   
pirâ- (#)

Fr.: circum-, circon-   

L. prefix meaning "around, round about."

From L. circum "around," accusative of circus "circle, ring," from Gk. kirkos, krikos "ring," PIE *sker-, *ker- "to turn, bend."

Pirâ- "around, about," variants par-, fer-, pâl- (as in ferdows, pardis, pâliz, from Av. pairidaeza- "enclosure, park"); Mid.Pers. pêrâ; O.Pers. pariy "around, about;" Av. pairi "around, over;" cf. Skt. pari; Indo-Iranian *pari- "around;" Gk. peri "around, about, beyond;" L. per "through;" PIE base *per- "through, across, beyond." The word paradize, with various forms in European languages, is a loan from Av. pairidaeza- "enclosure, park" (other Av. examples: pairifrâsa- "asking round about," pairivâra- "circumvallation").

circumbinary
  پیرادرینی   
pirâdorini

Fr.: circumbinaire   

Of or relating to an object that revolves around a → binary system.

circum- + → binary.

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