An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1244
constrained system
  راژمان ِ پاوندیده   
râžmân-e pâvandidé

Fr.: système contraint   

Opposite of a → free system. See also → constraint.

Constrained, p.p. of → constrain; → system.

pâvand (#)

Fr.: contrainte   

1) General: Limitation or restriction.
2) Mechanics: Any restriction imposed on the position or motion of a material system. Constraints are said to be internal if they do not impede free displacement of the system. All other kinds of constraints are called external. Systems subject only to internal constraints are free material systems.
3) Physics: A fact or condition, usually observational, that allows to reduce the number of free parameters in a theoretical model.

M.E. constreinte, from M.F., from constreindre, from L. constringere "to bind together, tie tightly," from → com- "together" + stringere "to bind, draw tight."

Pâvand "fetter, shackle," from "foot" (Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Khotanese fad; Av. pad-; cf. Skt. pat-, Gk. pos, genitive podos; L. pes, genitive pedis; P.Gmc. *fot, E. foot, Ger. Fuss, Fr. pied; PIE *pod-/*ped-) + vand, variant band "tie, band," (Mod.-Mid./Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind).


Fr.: constringence   

Same as → Abbe number.

Noun from → constrain.

constructive interference
  اندرزنش ِ سازنده   
andarzaneš-e sâznadé

Fr.: interférence constructive   

An → interference process in which the → amplitude of the resultant wave is greater than that of either individual waves. See also → destructive interference.

Constructive, from M.Fr. constructif or from M.L. constructivus, from L. construct-, p.p. stem of construere "to heap up," from → con- + struc- variant stem of struere "to build," → structure; → interference.

Andarzaneš, → interference; sâzandé "constructive," from sâxtan, → structure.

gosârdan (#)

Fr.: consommer   

1) To use up, spend. See also → expend.
2) To eat or drink.

M.E., from O.Fr. consumer "to consume" and directly from L. consumere "to use up, eat, waste," from → com-, intensive prefix, + sumere "to take," from → sub- "under" + emere "to buy, take," from PIE root *em- "to take, distribute;" cf. Skt. yam- "to hold," Av. yam- "to hold, keep," → expend.

Gosârdan "to consume, drink; dissipate, wipe out; let go," probably from Proto-Ir. *ui-sard-, from *sard- "to smear, rub;" cf. Khotanese (+*ā-) esaly "to besmear;" Kurd. sirīn "to wipe," sirewe "to wipe out, erase;" Oss. særdyn "to smear."


Fr.: consommation   

1) The act of consuming.
2) The amount consumed.

Verbal noun of → consume.

  ۱) پرماس؛ ۲) پرماسیدن   
1) parmâs (#); 2) parmâsidan (#)

Fr.: 1) contact; 2) contacter, toucher   

1a) The act or state of touching or being in immediate proximity, as in a → contact binary.
1b) One of the instances when the apparent position of the edges of the Sun and the Moon cross one another during an eclipse. They are designated as the → first contact, → second contact, → third contact, and → fourth contact. See also → contact binary, → last contact.
2a) (v. intr.) To be in or come into contact.
2b) ( To bring or put in contact.

From L. contactus "a touching," p.p. of contingere "to touch," from → com- "together" + tangere "to touch."

Parmâs "contact, touching," stem of parmâsidan "to touch, feel," from *pari-mars-, from Indo-Iranian *pari- "around" (O.Pers. pariy "around, about," Av. pairi "around, over," Skt. pari) + *mars- "to touch; to wipe, rub," Mid.Pers. marz "contact, touching," marzitan "to touch," Mod.Pers. mâlidan "to rub," Av. marəz- "to rub, wipe," marəza- "border, district," Skt. mrś- "to touch," mrśáti; L. mulceo "to caress," margo "edge" (Fr. marge "margin"); P.Gmc. *marko; Ger. Mark; E. mark, margin.

contact binary
  دورین ِ پرماسی   
dorin-e parmâsi

Fr.: binaire de contact   

A binary system in which the two components are so close that they exchange gases in a complex manner. Their overlapping gravitational fields form a "peanut" shaped equipotential surface.

contact; → binary.


Fr.: contenir   

To hold or keep within its volume or area.

M.E. conte(y)nen, from O.Fr. contenir, from L. continere "to hold together, enclose," from → com- "together" + tenere "to hold."

Parbanidan, constructed from Mid.Pers. parvand-, parvastan "to include, contain," from variant parband- and dropping the end d, as occurs in several dialects; from par- "around," → peri-, + ban-, van-, band, vand, bastan, → band, + -idan infinitive suffix; related to parvandé, → file.

  پربنگر، پربننده   
parbangar, parbanandé

Fr.: container   

1) Anything that contains or can contain something, as a carton, box, crate, or can.
2) A large, vanlike, reuseable box for consolidating smaller crates or cartons into a single shipment, designed for easy and fast loading and unloading of freight (

contain; → -er.


Fr.: contenu   

1) Something that is contained.
2) The topics or matter treated in a written work.

M.E., from L. contentum from p.p. of continere, → contain.

  ۱) هابَرد؛ ۲) هابَردیدن   
1) hâbard; 2) hâbardidan

Fr.: combat, lutte; contester, disputer   

1a) A race, conflict, or other competition between rivals, as for a prize.
1b) Struggle for victory or superiority.
1c) Strife in argument; dispute; controversy.
2a) To struggle or fight for, as in battle.
2b) To argue against; dispute (

From Fr. contester "to dispute, oppose," from M.Fr., from L. contestari "to call to witness, bring action," from → com- "together" + testari "to bear witness," from testis "a witness."

Hâbard, from hâ-, variant ham- "together," → com-, + bard "to fight, to struggle," cf. nabard, nibard "fight, struggle, war," variants nâvard, âvard, ultimately from Proto-Ir. *part- "to fight, to struggle."

bâftâr (#)

Fr.: contexte   

The parts of a written or spoken statement that precede or follow a specific word or passage, usually influencing its meaning or effect (

From L. contextus "a joining together," originally p.p. of contexere "to weave together," from → com- "together" + texere "to weave, to make", → texture.

Bâftâr, verbal noun from bâftan "to weave," → texture.

Conti scenario
  سناریوی ِ کونتی   
senâryo-ye Conti

Fr.: scénario de Conti   

A scenario according to which the existence of peculiar → Wolf-Rayet stars could be explained by intense → mass loss that characterizes → massive stars. An → O-type star loses a significant amount of mass via → stellar winds, revealing first the CNO-burning products at its surface, and subsequently the → helium burning products. These two stages are spectroscopically identified with the → WN Wolf-Rayet and → WC Wolf-Rayet phases. A version of the scenario would be:
M> 85 Msun: O → LBV → WN → WC → SN
40 >M> 85 Msun: O → WN → WC → SN
25 >M> 40 Msun: O → RSG → WN → WC → SN
20 >M> 25 Msun: O → RSG → WN → SN
10 >M> 20 Msun: OB → RSG → BSG → SN.
The mass ranges shown are meant only to be illustrative; they are a function of → metallicity (see, e.g., Philip Massey, 2003, ARAA 41, 15).

Peter S. Conti, 1976, Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Liège, 6, Ser. 9, 193; scenario, from It. scenario, from L.L. scenarius "of stage scenes," from L. scena "scene."

qâré (#)

Fr.: continent   

Any of the large, continuous land areas of the Earth. They are usually considered to be seven: Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Australia, and Antarctica.

Contraction of L. terra continens "continuous land," from continens, pr.p. of continere "to hold together," from → com- "together" + tenere "to hold, to keep, to maintain" from PIE root *ten- "to stretch;" → tension.

Qâré, from Ar. qârrat.

qâre-yi (#)

Fr.: continental   

Of or of the nature of a continent.

continent; → -al.

continental crust
  پوسته‌ی ِ اقیانوسی   
puste-ye qâre-yi (#)

Fr.: croûte continentale   

The part of the → Earth's crust which underlies the → continents. Continental crust is more silica-rich and thicker than → oceanic crust, and is on average older. However, it is highly variable in all of these respects. The average thickness of the continental crust is about 40km, but beneath parts of the Andes and the Himalaya mountain ranges the crust is more than 70 km thick. Continental crust is continuously being eroded and turned into sediment. Some of this sediment ends up on the ocean floor where it can be returned to the → Earth's mantle at → subduction zones. The oldest parts of the continental crust include some rocks that are nearly 4 billion years old. New continental crust is produced by the destruction of oceanic crust at subduction zones, a process that continues today.

continental; → crust.

continental drift
  دلک ِ قاره‌ها   
delek-e qârehâ

Fr.: dérive de continents   

A hypothesis proposed by Alfred Wegener (1912) suggesting that the → continents are not stationary, but drift through time. Wegener's hypothesis has since been developed and included in a new theory called → plate tectonics.

continental; → drift.


Fr.: contingence   

In logic, a → proposition that may be either true or false, and is not necessarily one or the other.

Noun of → contingent.


Fr.: contigent   

1) Dependent for existence, occurrence, character, etc., on something not yet certain; conditional.
2) Liable to happen or not; uncertain; possible.
3) Logic: Describing a → proposition that is → true in some possible circumstances and → false in others. For example, "it snowed in Paris on 15 December 2000" is contingent: it is true, but it might have been false. On a → truth table a contingent proposition is one that is true for some possible → truth values of its constituent parts and false for others. See also → non-contingent.

M.E., from M.Fr. contingent and directly from L. contingentem (nominative contingens) "happening, touching," pr.p. of contingere "to touch," → contact.

Âmarsân, agent noun from *âmarsidan "to touch," related to parmâsidan "to touch, feel," → contact, Mid.Pers. marz "contact, touching," marzitan "to touch," Mod.Pers. mâlidan "to rub," Av. marəz- "to rub, wipe," marəza- "border, district," Mod.Pers. marz "border;" ultimately from Proto-Ir. *Hmars- "to touch."

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