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Curie temperature damâ-ye Curie (#) Fr.: température de Curie The highest temperature for a given → ferromagnetic substance above which the → magnetization is lost and the substance becomes merely → paramagnetic. The Curie temperature of iron is about 1043 K and that of nickel 631 K. Named after the French physicist Pierre Curie (1859-1906), a pioneer in magnetism, crystallography, and radioactivity. In 1903 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics with his wife Marie Curie (1867-1934, née Maria Skłodowska), and Henri Becquerel (1852-1908); → temperature. |
curium kuriom (#) Fr.: curium A → radioactive element not found in nature but discovered in 1944 among the products of → plutonium-239 after bombardment by high-energy → alpha particles in a cyclotron at the University of California at Berkeley; symbol Cm. Atomic number 96; mass number of most stable isotope 247; melting point about 1,340°C; boiling point 3,110°C. Named after French physicists Pierre Curie (1859-1906) and his wife Marie Curie (1867-1934, née Maria Skłodowska). |
curl tâv (#) Fr.: rotationnel A vector → operator which is the vector product of the → del operator with a vector function. For a three-dimensional function, it is equal to the sum of the vector products of the unit vectors and → partial derivatives in each of the component directions: ∇ x F(x,y,z) = (∂F_{z}/∂y - ∂F_{y}/∂z)i + (∂F_{x}/∂z - ∂F_{z}/∂x)j + (∂F_{y}/∂x - ∂F_{x}/∂y)k. The curl of a vector field is a vector field. ∇ x F is sometimes called the rotation of F and written rot F. Metathesis of crulle "curly," probably from an unrecorded O.E. word or from M.Du. krul "curly." Tâv, variants tow, tâb "twist, swing," from tâbidan "to spin, to twist." |
current jarayân (#) Fr.: courant Any steady movement of material in space. In particular, any movement of electric charge. → stream; → flow; → flux. From O.Fr. corant "running," pr.p. of courre "to run," from L. currere "to run," from PIE *kers- "to run" (cf. Gk. -khouros "running," Lith. karsiu "go quickly," O.N. horskr "swift," Welsh carrog "torrent"). Jarayân from Ar. |
current cosmological epoch zime-ye keyhânšenâxti-ye konuni Fr.: époque cosmologique actuelle The Universe at the → redshift z = 0. → current; → present; → cosmological; → epoch. |
current density cagâli-ye jarayân Fr.: densité de courant The electric current per unit of cross-sectional area perpendicular to the direction of current flow. It is a vector quantity and represented by symbol J. Electric current density is usually expressed in amperes per square meter. |
cursor jâbân Fr.: curseur A movable, sometime blinking, indicator on a computer screen identifying the point that will be affected by input from the user (OxfordDictionaries.com). From L. cursor "runner," also "errand-boy," from curs-, p.p. stem of currere "to run," → current. Jâbân, literally "position/place keeper," or "position/place maker," from jâ, → place, + -bân a suffix denoting "keeper, guard," sometimes forming agent nouns or indicating relation, → host. |
curvaton kurvaton Fr.: curvaton A hypothetical → scalar field that is used to explain the → primordial curvature perturbation in the Universe. It is generally supposed that the primordial perturbation originates during → inflation, from the → quantum fluctuation of the inflation field. The curvaton model is an attempt to account for the primordial perturbation by a completely different origin, namely the quantum fluctuation during inflation of a light scalar field which is not the assumed slowly-rolling inflation. In this model, the curvaton field is an energetically sub-dominant component during inflation. As the energy density of the Universe drops after inflation, the fraction of this component becomes significant. At this time the curvaton perturbation is converted into an adiabatic curvature perturbation of the Universe. The amplitude of the final perturbation, which should match observations, depends on both how long the curvaton oscillates before it decays, and on the shape of the potential. The first curvaton model was proposed by D. H. Lyth & D.Wands and in 2002 (Physics Letters B524). From curvat-, from → curvature, + → -on. Although not related, the term curvaton exists in Fr. meaning "small curve" with variants curvatone, courbaton, and corbatone (A. Jal, 1848, Glossaire nautique). |
curvature xamidegi (#) Fr.: courbure A measure of the amount by which a curve, a surface, or any other
manifold deviates from a straight line, a plane, or a hyperplane. In particular,
The reciprocal of the radius of the circle which most nearly approximates a
curve at a given point. From L. curvatura, from curvatus, p.p. of curvare "to bend," from curvus "curved," → curve. Xamidegi, from xamidé "curved," from xamidag "curved" + noun suffix -i. |
curvature constant pârâmun-e xamidegi Fr.: paramètre de courbure A parameter occurring in the → Friedmann equations of → general relativity describing the geometry of → space-time. A spatially → open Universe is defined by k = -1, a → closed Universe by k = + 1 and a → flat Universe by k = 0. See also the → Robertson-Walker metric. See also → curvature of space-time. |
curvature of space-time xamidegi-ye fazâ-zamân (#) Fr.: courbure de l'espace-temps According to → general relativity, → space-time is curved by the presence of → matter. The curvature is described in terms of → Riemann's geometry. In → cosmological models three types of curvature are considered: positive (spherical, → closed Universe), zero (Euclidean, → flat Universe), and negative (hyperbolic, → open Universe). See also → curvature constant. → curvature; → space-time. |
curve xam (#) Fr.: courbe A line that deviates from straightness in a smooth, continuous fashion. A line representing a variable on a graph. From L. curvus "crooked, curved, bent;" cf. Av. skarəna- "round," Gk. kirkos, krikos "a ring;" PIE base *sker- "to turn, bend." Xam, variant kamân "arc," Mid.Pers. kamân, probably from PIE *kamb- "to bend, crook," cf. Breton kamm "curved, bent." |
curve fitting saz-e xam, sazkard-e ~ Fr.: ajustement de courbe Construction of mathematical functions whose graphs are curves that "best" approximate a given collection of data points. |
curve of growth xam-e ruyeš Fr.: courbe de croissance A plot showing how the → equivalent width of an → absorption line, or the radiance of an → emission line, increases as a → function of the → number of → atoms that produce the line. |
curved xamidé (#) Fr.: courbé Not straight. Adj. from → curve. |
curvilinear xam-xatt Fr.: curviligne Consisting of, represented by, or bound by curved lines. → rectilinear. |
cusp tizé (#) Fr.: cuspide 1) General: Pointed end. A point of transition.
→ polar cusp. L. cuspis "point, spear, pointed end." Tizé, noun from tiz "sharp, pointed," from Mid.Pers. tēz, tēž, tigr "sharp," O.Pers. tigra- "pointed," Av. taēža-, tighra- "pointed," Skt. taējas- "the sharp edge (of a knife), piercing (flame)", from tij- "to be sharp, to pierce," Gk. stizein "to prick, puncture," stigma "mark made by a pointed instrument," L. instigare "to goad," P.Gmc. *stik- "to pierce, prick, be sharp," O.H.G. stehhan, Ger. stechen "to prick," O.E. stician "to pierce, stab," E. stick "to pierce;" PIE *st(e)ig- "to stick; pointed". |
cusp problem parâse-ye tizé Fr.: problème des cuspides A problem encountered by the → cold dark matter (CDM) model of galaxy formation. The numerical simulations with CDM predict a large concentration of dark matter in the center of galaxies, with a peaked density distribution, in contrast to the real, observed galaxies. See also: → angular momentum catastrophe; → missing dwarfs. |
cut boridan (#) Fr.: couper To penetrate or divide something, as with a sharp-edged instrument. M.E. cutten, kytten, kitten; O.E. *cyttan, cognate with O.Swed. kotta "to cut;" O.N. kuti "little knife," or from O.Fr. couteau "knife." Boridan "to cut off;" Mid.Pers. brin-, britan, brinitan "to cut off," brin "cut, delimitation, determined;" Av. (pairi-) brī- "to shave, shear;" cf. Skt. bhrī- "to hurt, injure," bhrinanti "they hurt." |
cutoff boré Fr.: coupure 1) A designated limit beyond which the passage of something must be stopped. Boré, from bor- present stem of boridan "to → cut" + noun suffix -é. |
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