An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1234

Fr.: compenser   

To reduce or balance the effect of something unwanted by exerting an opposite force or effect.

From L. compensatus, p.p. of compensare "to weigh one thing (against another)," thus, "to counterbalance," from → com- "with"+ pensare, frequentative of pendere "to weigh, to hang."

Pâhangidan, from pâhang (Dehxodâ) "that which is put in a balance scale to equalize the weights," from pâ- variant of pâd-, → counter-, + hangidan variant of sanjidan "to measure; compare, put in balance," → object.


Fr.: compensateur   

One who, or that which, compensates.

compensate; → -or.

compensator plate
  تیغه‌ی ِ پاهنگنده   
tiqe-ye pâhangandé

Fr.: compensatrice   

A transparent plate inserted in one of the arms of an interferometer, in particular the → Michelson interferometer, to compensate for a longer → optical path in the other arm. Its function is to ensure that the beams transverse the same total thickness of glass in both arms of the interferometer. This is not essential for producing → interference fringes in monochromatic light. The compensator plate is of the same glass and the same thickness as the → beam splitter plate.

compensator; → plate.

piši jostan (#)

Fr.: concourir, rivaliser   

To strive to outdo another for acknowledgment, a prize, supremacy, profit, etc.; engage in a contest (

From M.Fr. compéter, from L.L. competere "to strive in common," from → com- "together" + petere "to strive, go forward, seek," from PIE base *pet- "to fly, rush" (cf. Av. pat- " to fly, fall, rush," patarəta- "winged," Mid.Pers. patet "falls," opastan "to fall," Mod.Pers. oftâdan "to fall," Skt. patati "he flies, falls," pátra- "wing, feather, leaf," Gk. piptein "to fall," pterux "wing," O.E. feðer "feather," L. penna "feather, wing").

Piši jostan "to compete," literally "to strive to be in front position," from piši noun of piš "forward; in front; before," → pre-, + jostan, juy- "to strive for, seek," Parthian Mid.Pers. ywdy- "to strive for," Khotanese juv- "to fight," Av. yūd- (yaoda-) "to fight, struggle," yūdiieiti "fights," cf. Skt. yodh- "to fight," yúdh- "fight," Gk. hysmine "battle, fight," Lith. judus "belligerent."

piši juyi (#)

Fr.: compétition   

1) The act of competing; rivalry for supremacy, a prize, etc. 2) A contest for some prize, honor, or advantage (

Verbal noun of → compete + → -tion.


Fr.: compétitif   

1) Of, pertaining to, involving, or decided by competition.
2) Well suited for competition; having a feature that makes for successful competition.
3) Having a strong desire to compete or to succeed (

compete + → -ive.

competitive accretion model
  مدل ِ فربال ِ پیشی‌جویانه   
model-e farbâl-e piši-juyâné

Fr.: modèle d'accrétion compétitive   

A scenario for → massive star formation whereby developing → protostars in their natal → molecular clouds compete with each other to gather mass. The protostars → accrete mass with a rate which depends on their location within the protocluster. They use the same reservoir of gas to grow. Therefore those protostars nearest the center, where the potential well is deep, and gas densities are higher, have the highest → accretion rates. The competitive accretion model explains the observational fact that the most massive stars are generally found in cluster cores. It accounts also for the distribution of stellar masses. In this model the accretion process depends on the content of the cluster. In clusters where gas dominates the potential (e.g. at initial stages of cluster formation), the accretion process is better modeled by using the → tidal radius as the accretion radius. In contrast, when the stars dominate the cluster potential and are virialized, the accretion is better modeled by → Bondi-Hoyle accretion (Bonnell et al. 1997, MNRAS 285, 201; 2001, MNRAS 323, 785).

competitive; → accretion; → model..


Fr.: compétiteur   

A person, team, company, etc., that competes; rival (

compete + → -or.


Fr.: compilation   

The act of compiling; something compiled.

compile; → -tion.


Fr.: compiler   

1) To put together (documents, selections, or other materials) in one book or work.
2) Computers: To translate (a computer program) from a high-level language into another language, usually machine language, using a → compiler (

M.E., from O.Fr. compiler "compile, collect," from L. compilare "to plunder, rob," probably originally "bundle together, heap up;" from → com- "together" + pilare "to fix firmly, accumulate."

Hâtalidan, from hâ- variant of ham-, → com-, + tal, → pile, + -idan suffix of infinitives.


Fr.: compilateur   

A → software program that compiles program source code files into an executable program.

compile + → -er


Fr.: complément   

1) Math., logic: With reference to any set A, conceived as a subset of some larger set U, all the elements of U that are not contained in A.
2) Optics: A complementary color that, when combined to another, creates neutral gray.

From O.Fr. complement, from L. complementum "that which fills up or completes," from complere "fill up," → complete.

Osporân, from ospor present tense stem of osporidan "to → complete."


Fr.: complémentarité   

The state or quality of being → complementary.

From → complementary + → -ity.

From osporandé, → complementary, + -gi, same as -i noun suffix.

complementarity principle
  پروز ِ اسپرندگی   
parvaz-e osporandegi

Fr.: principe de complémentarité   

Physical principle, put forward by Niels Bohr in 1928, that a complete knowledge of phenomena on atomic dimensions requires a description of both wave and particle properties.

complementarity; → principle.


Fr.: complémentaire   

Forming or serving as a complement; completing.

From → complement.

complementary angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ اسپرنده   
zâviyé-ye osporandé

Fr.: angle complémentaire   

Any angle that when added to another one creates a 90° angle.

complementary; → angle.

complementary apertures
  دهانه‌های ِ اسپرنده   
dahânehâ-ye osporandé

Fr.: ouvertures complémentaires   

Same as → complementary screens.

complementary; → aperture.

complementary screens
  پرده‌های ِ اسپرنده   
pardehâ-ye osporandé

Fr.: écrans complémentaires   

Two apertures where opaque and transparent areas are inverted. If A is an aperture that has some opaque areas and some transparent ones, the complementary pattern A' is the pattern in which exactly the opposite areas are opaque and transparent. Thus, the complimentary screen of a single slit is a wire of the same size, and the complementary screen of a circular opening is a dot. A better term would be → complementary apertures.

complementary; → screen.

  ۱) اسپر؛ ۲) اسپریدن   
1) ospor; 2) osporidan

Fr.: 1) complet; 2) compléter   

1a) General: Having all necessary parts, elements, or steps.
1b) Math: Of a deductive theory or system, the property that every statement formulated in terms of the theory can be either proved or disproved.
2) To make whole or entire; to make perfect.

From O.Fr. complet "full," from L. completus, p.p. of complere "to fill up," from → com- + plere "to fill," PIE *pelu- "full," from *pel- "to be full;" cf. O.Pers. paru- "much, many," Av. parav-, pauru-, pouru-, par- "to fill," Mod.Pers. por "full," Skt. puru-, Gk. polus.

1) Ospor, from Mid.Pers. uspurr "complete, entire," from prefix us-, os-, → ex-, + por "full," O.Pers. paru- "much, many," Av. parav-, pauru-, pouru-, par- "to fill," PIE *pelu- "full," from *pel- "to be full;" cf. Skt. puru-, Gk. polus, O.E. full "completely, full," from P.Gmc. *fullaz, O.H.G. fol, Ger. voll, Goth. full.
2) From ospor + -idan infinitive suffix.

complete graph
  نگاره‌ی ِ اسپر   
negâre-ye ospor

Fr.: graphe complet   

In → graph theory, a simple graph with an → edge between every pair of → vertices.

complete; → graph.

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