# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1310
 common denominator   آنامنگر ِ همدار   ânâmengar-e hamdârFr.: dénominateur commun   A quantity into which all the denominators of a set of fractions may be divided without a remainder.→ common; → denominator. common fraction   برخه‌ی ِ همدار   barxe-ye hamdârFr.: fraction d'entiers   A fraction written as a/b where a and b are → positive  → integers, as opposed to a → decimal fraction; for example, 5/7. Common fractions are sometimes also called → vulgar fractions.→ common; → fraction. common logarithm   لگاریتم ِ دهدهی   logâritm-e dahdahiFr.: logarithme décimal   The logarithm with → base 10. It is known also as the → decimal logarithm, decadic logarithm, or Briggsian logarithm, after Henry Briggs, an English mathematician who pioneered its use.→ common; → logarithm; → decimal. commonalty   پاترم   pâtram (#)Fr.: peuple, foule   The ordinary people, as distinguished from those with authority, rank, station, etc.; the common people. Also, commonality (Dictionary.com).M.E., from M.Fr. comunalte, from comunal- "communal," → common, + -te "-ty," a suffix denoting state, quality, etc.Mid.Pers. pâtram "common people, commonalty" (MacKenzie), variant pâyram, prefixed from ram "herd, flock," Mod.Pers. ramé "herd, flock." commonness   همداری   hamdâriFr.: caractère commun, banalité   The fact or state of being → common or happening often.→ common; → -ness. commune   همداره   hamdâréFr.: commune   1) A small group of persons living together, sharing possessions, work, income, etc., and often pursuing unconventional lifestyles. 2) Any community organized for the protection and promotion of local interests, and subordinate to the state (Dictionary.com).From M.Fr. commune "free city, group of citizens," from M.L. communia, noun use of neuter plural of L. adj. communis, literally "that which is common," from communis, → common.Hamdâré, from hamdâr, → common. communicate   همدارگندن   hamdârgandanFr.: communiquer   1a) To impart knowledge of; make known. 1b) To give to another; impart; transmit (as a disease). 2a) To give or interchange thoughts, feelings, information, or the like, by writing, speaking, etc. 2b) To express thoughts, feelings, or information easily or effectively (Dictionary.com).From L. communicatus, p.p. of communicare "to share, divide out; impart; inform; join, participate in," literally "to make common," from communis, → common.Hamdârgandan, literally "to diffuse to the public," from hamdâr, → common, + gan, variant kan "to throw, diffuse" (as in parâgan-, parâgandan "to diffuse, disperse, scatter;" afgandan "to throw; to lay, place;" kandan "to dig; to extract"), from Proto-Ir. *kan- "to throw, place, put, disperse, → scatter" + -dan infinitive suffix. communication   همدارگنش   hamdârganešFr.: communication   1) The act or process of communicating; fact of being communicated. 2) The imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs (Dictionary.com).Verbal noun of → communicate. communism   همدارباوری، همدارگرایی   hamdârbâvari, hamdâgerâyiFr.: communisme   A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state (Dictionary.com).→ commune; → -ism. communitarian   همدارگان‌گرا، همدارگان‌باور   hamdârgângerâ, hamdârgânbâvarFr.: communautaire-   A member of a communistic community; an advocate of such a community.→ community; → -ary; → -an. communitarianism   همدارگان‌گرایی، همدارگان‌باوری   hamdârgângerâyi, hamdârgânbâvariFr.: communautarisme   A doctrine or system of social organization that upholds the importance of communities. It tends to lessen the focus on individual rights and increase the focus on communal responsibilities.→ communitarian; → -ism. communitary   همدارگانی   hamdârgâniFr.: communautaire-   Of or relating to a community; communal.→ community; → -ary. community   ۱) همدارگان؛ ۲) همداری   1) hamdârgân; 2) hamdâriFr.: communauté   1a) A social group whose members share common characteristics or interests, such as values, identity, and often a common location (e.g. a village, town, or neighborhood). 1b) Ecology: A group of populations of different species (plants and animals) within a specified location in space and time. 2) Common ownership or participation; joint possession.Ultimately from L. communitas "partnership, society, fellowship," from communis, → common "common, public, general," + -itas, → -ityHamdârgân, from hamdâr, → common, + -gân suffix forming plural entities, from Mid.Pers. -gânag, -gâna, on the model of hamegân, → public. commutation   هم‌موتش   hammutešFr.: commutation   General: A substitution, exchange, or interchange. Electronics: The transfer of current from one channel to another in a gas tube. Electricity: The reversal of direct current into alternating current. Math: A commutative operation, where a . b = b . a.Noun from → commute. commutation rules   رزن‌های ِ هم‌موتش   razanhâ-ye hammutešFr.: règles de commutation   The specification of commutators of operators that in quantum physics correspond to the coordinates and momenta of a system.→ commutation; → rule. commutative   هم‌موتنده   hammutandéFr.: commutatif   (adj.) Of or pertaining to → commutation.Adj. from → commute. commutative law   قانون ِ هم‌موتشی   qânun-e hammutešiFr.: loi commutative   A principle holding for the operations of addition and multiplication (in some number domains) that asserts that the consequence of the given operation is not affected by the order in which the terms are considered. Thus x + y = y + x; x . y = y . x.→ commutative; → law. The first use of the word commutative in this sense is ascribed to the French mathematician François Joseph Servois (1768-1847). commutativity   هم‌موتندگی   hammutandegiFr.: commutativité   The state or quality of being commutative.Noun from → commutative. commutator   هم‌موتگر   hammutgarFr.: commutateur   Math.: The commutator of a and b is the element c of a group such that bac = ab.Agent noun from → commute. commute   هم‌موتیدن   hammutidanFr.: échanger   To substitute (one thing for another); exchange. → mutation. Math., logic: To satisfy or engage in a commutative operation.From L. commutare "to change altogether," from → com- + mutare "to change," from PIE base *mei- "to change, go, move;" cf. Av. miθô "inverted, false," miθaoxta- "wrong spoken;" Skt. methati "changes, alternates, joins, meets," mithah "mutual, reciprocal;" L. meare "to go, pass," mutuus "done in exchange;" Goth. maidjan "to change;" E. prefix mis- (in mistake).Hammutidan, from ham-→ com- + mut, from L. mutare cognate with Av. miθô, as above, + -idan infinitive suffix.