An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1251
crystalline structure
  ساختار ِ بلورین   
sâxtâr-e bolurin

Fr.: structure cristalline   

An arrangement and interrelationship of parts that is of → crystalline nature.

crystalline; → structure.

crystallinity
  بلورینی   
bolurini

Fr.: cristallinité   

1) A state of molecular structure in some resins attributed to the existence of solid crystals with a definite geometric form.
2) The percentage of a polymer sample that has formed crystals (J. W. Gooch, Encyclopedic Dictionary of Polymers).

crystalline; → -ity.

crystallization
  بلورش   
bolureš

Fr.: cristallisation   

A process by which a homogeneous solution becomes crystal.

Noun from crystallize, → crystal.

Noun from bolur, from verb boluridan "to crystallize" + verbal noun suffix -eš.

crystallography
  بلورشناسی   
boluršenâsi (#)

Fr.: cristallographie   

The science of forms, properties, and structure of crystals.

crystal; → -graphy; → -logy.

CSPN
  ستار‌ی ِ مرکزی ِ میغ ِ سیاره‌ای   
setâre-ye markazi-ye miq-e sayyâre-yi

Fr.: étoile centrale de nébuleuse planétaire   

An evolved → hot star which is responsible for the ionization of a → planetary nebula. Planetary nebulae result from mass ejection by evolved stars undergoing violent instabilities. CSPNe are extremely hot, with → effective temperatures ranging from 30,000 to 120,000 K. They evolve rapidly toward the → white dwarf stage, while the planetary nebulae continue expanding with a small expansion velocity of about 25 km s-1, becoming progressively thinner and thus eventually invisible after some 104 years. The initial masses of these stars range from about 1 to 8 solar masses. CSPNe are not a homogeneous group and present a large variety of spectral characteristics. Many of CSPNe display emission lines, some of them with spectra resembling those of → WC Wolf-Rayet. Although superficially similar, they differ from classical W-R stars in their degenerate structure, much lower masses, a wider range of temperatures, and limitation almost exclusively to carbon-rich stars. Some CSPNe show → weak emission-lines (wels). A considerable fraction of both groups are hydrogen deficient. However, some wels may be H-rich despite having emission lines. The evolutionary status of the [WR]-type stars is still very uncertain, and it is unclear whether there is any evolutionary relation to the wels. CSPNe have a strong → stellar wind composed of helium, carbon, and oxygen. Some of them are binary systems. The study of CSPNe is important for understanding of → post-AGB stellar evolution.

CSPN, short for → Central, → Star of → Planetary Nebula.

cube
  کاب   
kâb

Fr.: cube   

Geometry: The regular solid whose faces are six squares.
Algebra: The third power of a quantity; the product of three equal factors (a . a . a = a3).

From L. cubus, from Gk. kubos "a cube, a die; cavity before the hip," kubiton "elbow;" cf. Skt. kubra- "hole in the earth, pit;" Goth. hups "hip;" from PIE base *keu- "to bend."

The currently used term in Pers. is moka'ab (مکعب), loan from Ar., from ka'b (کعب) "talus, anklebone, heel; die." There are several Pers. equivalents for the concepts "talus, anklebone; die," one of which qâb, variants qâp and in Tabari kâb "heel, talus." This dictionary adopts kâb, which has already been introduced by other sources.

cube root
  ریشه‌ی ِ کابی   
riše-ye kâbi

Fr.: racine cubique   

A number which taken three times as a factor produces another number, the cube of the given factor.

cube; → root.

cubic
  کابی   
kâbi

Fr.: cubique   

1) Having the form of a cube; having three dimensions. → cubic crystal system.
2) Of or pertaining to the third degree of a quantity or variable. → cubic equation, → cubic function.

cube + → -ic.

cubic crystal system
  راژمان ِ بلوری ِ کابی   
râžmân-e boluri-ye kâbi

Fr.: système cristallin cubique   

A → crystal system whose three axes have equal lengths and all corners are 90°.

cubic; → crystal; → system.

cubic equation
  هموگش ِ کابی   
hamugeš-e kâbi

Fr.: équation cubique   

An equation containing unknowns of the third power; the general form: ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0.

Cubic, of or pertaining to → cube; → equation.

cubic function
  کریای ِ کابی   
karyâ-ye kâbi

Fr.: fonction cubique   

A function defined by a → polynomial of → degree three. Its generalized form is: f(x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d, where a, b, c and d are constants, and a≠ 0.

cubic; → function.

culminate
  بالستیدن   
bâlestidan

Fr.: culminer   

To reach the highest point above an observer's horizon; to attain → culmination.

From L.L. culminatus, p.p. of culminare "to exalt," from L. culmen "top, summit," cf. Gk. kolonos "hill," Skt. kuta- "top," Mod.Pers. kotal "hill," Lith. kalmas "mountain," P.Gmc. *khulnis Low Ger. hull "hill," E. hill; PIE base *kel- "to be high; hill."

Bâlestidan, verb from bâlestculmination.

culmination
  بالست   
bâlest

Fr.: culmination   

The act of culminating or the instant at which a celestial object reaches its highest altitude above the horizon by crossing the observer's meridian. → upper culmination; → lower culmination.

Verbal noun of → culminate.

Bâlest, from Mid.Pers. bâlist "culmination point of a star; highest, summit," from bâlây "high" + -ist superlative suffix, Av. barəzišta- "highest," from barəz- "high, mount" (Skt. bhrant- "high," O.E. burg, burh "castle, fortified place," from P.Gmc. *burgs "fortress," Ger. Burg "castle," Goth. baurgs "city," E. burg, borough, Fr. bourgeois, bourgeoisie, faubourg; PIE base *bhergh- "high") + -išta- superlative suffix (Skt. -istha-, Gk. -istos, O.H.G. -isto, -osto, O.E. -st, -est, -ost).

culture
  ۱) فرهنگ؛ ۲) کشت   
1) farhang (#); 2) kešt (#)

Fr.: culture   

1a) Enlightenment and sophistication acquired by a person or society through education, arts, letters, manners, and scholarly pursuits.
1b) The beliefs, customs, practices, and social behavior of a certain nation, people, or period.
2a) The growing of biological material (such as plants, microorganisms, animal tissue) for scientific study, medicinal use, etc.
2b) The product or growth resulting from such cultivation.

M.E., from M.Fr. culture from L. cultura "cultivation, agriculture; care; honoring," from p.p. stem of colere "to till, cultivate; inhabit; maintain; cherish, honor;" PIE *kwel- "to move around;" cf. Av. car- "to move, go, walk," carāni "I would go," carāt "he would go;" Mid.Pers. car- "to pasture, graze," carag "pasture, grazing; flock;" Mod.Pers. caridan "to graze;" Skt. car- "to move, go, walk;" Gk. pelomai "to move."

1) Farhang "culture, education; dictionary," related to farhixtan "to educate," âhanjidan "to draw up;" Mid.Pers. frahang "education, instruction; knowledge," frahixtan, frahanjidan "to educate;" Av. fraθang- "to drive forward, to drive to," from frā-, fra- "forward, forth," → pro-, + θang-, θanj- "to draw, to pull."
2) Kešt past stem of keštan, variants kâštan, kâridan "to cultivate, to plant;" Mid.Pers. kištan, kâridan "to sow, plant; to make furrows;" Av. kar- "to strew seed, cultivate," kāraiieiti "cultivates;" cf. Skt. kar- "to scatter, strew, pour out."

cumulate
  کومیدن   
kumidan

Fr.: cumuler   

To heap up; → amass; → accumulate.

From L. cumulatus "heaped, increased, augmented," p.p. of cumulare "to heap," from cumulus "mound, heap," from PIE *ku-m-olo-, from *keue- "to swell;" cf. Skt. śavi "to swell;" svayati "swells up, is strong;" Av. su-, sauu- "to bulge, swell up, increase;" Proto-Ir. *sauH- "to bulge, swell up, increase" (Cheung 2007, Pers. sud "gain, profit"); Gk. kuein "to swell;" Lith. saunas.

Kumidan, from kum, kumé "heap;" Hamedâni kumelé, kumelân "heap, pile, mound," kumé kardan "to accumulate;" Kurd. kom "pile, group," komel "society, organization," related to Pers. kud "heap" (Mid.Pers. kôt), Gilaki kô-pâ "warehouse, barn," kô-gâh "gathering site." In the Gilan province there are several localities with protruding positions that bear names with an initial kom- (such as komâcâl, komâdol, kumélé, komsâr, etc.); probably related to L. cumul-, as above; if confirmed, interestingly it relates to the PIE form *keue- in contrast with Proto-Ir. *sauH-, as above.

cumulative
  ۱) کومنده؛ ۲) کومشی   
1) kumandé; 2) kumeši

Fr.: cumulatif   

1) Increasing or growing by accumulation or successive additions.
2) Formed by or resulting from accumulation or the addition of successive parts or elements (Dictionary.com). → cumulative distribution function.

cumulate; → -ive.

cumulative distribution function
  کریای ِ واباژش ِ کومشی   
karyâ-ye vâbâžeš-e kumeši

Fr.: fonction de distribution cumulée   

A function that gives the probability that a → random variable X is less than or equal to x, at each possible outcome: F(x) = P(X ≤ x), for -∞ < x < ∞. Same as → distribution function.

cumulative; → distribution; → function.

Cupid
  کوپید   
Kupid (#)

Fr.: Cupid   

A natural satellite of Uranus discovered in 2003 (Uranus XXVII); mean diameter about 18 km, orbital semi-major axis about 74 km.

Discovered in 2003 using the Hubble Space Telescope. Named after a character in William Shakespeare's play Timon of Athens.

Cupido
  کوپیدو   
Kupido

Fr.: Cupidon   

Asteroid 763 Cupido, which belongs to the Main Belt.

Cupido "desire," the Roman god of love (also known as Amor), often equated with Eros, one of the primordial gods in Greek mythology.

curie
  کوری   
curie (#)

Fr.: curie   

The traditional unit of → radioactivity defined as the quantity of any radioactive isotope in which the number of → disintegrations per second is 3.7 × 1010. Abbreviation: Ci. → becquerel.

Named after the French physicists Pierre Curie (1859-1906) and his wife Marie Curie (1867-1934, née Maria Skłodowska), pioneers of research on radioactivity, who discovered → radium in 1898 and received the Nobel Prize in Physics, 1903, jointly with Henri Becquerel (1852-1908).

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