An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1244
xarcang (#)

Fr.: crabe   

1) Any decapod crustacean of the suborder Brachyura, having the eyes on short stalks and a short, broad, more or less flattened body, the abdomen being small and folded under the thorax. → Cancer; → Crab nebula; → Crab pulsar.
2) Any of various other crustaceans, as the hermit crab, or other animals, as the horseshoe crab, resembling the true crabs (

M.E. crabbe; O.E. crabba, from Germanic *krab(b)- (cf. Low Ger. krabben "to scratch, claw"); PIE base *gerbh- "to scratch;" cf. Gk. graphein "to write."

Xarcang "crab," from Mid.Pers. karcang, cf. Lori qerženg from kar-, qer- + cang, ženg "claw." The meaning of the first component, xar/qer, is not clear. It may be related to Av. xruta-, xraoždva- "hard," as in xruždisma- "hard ground" (from xruždi- + zam-), and to the PIE *qarq- "to be hard." In that case, the Pers. term for crab would literally mean "hard claw."

Crab nebula (M1, NGC 1952)
  میغ ِ خرچنگ   
miq-e xarcang

Fr.: Nébuleuse du Crabe   

An expanding cloud of debris from the explosion of a → Type I supernova in the → constellation  → Taurus. Its light reached Earth in 1054 and was visible to the naked eye even in the daytime. Lying about 6,300 → light-years away, the Crab nebula is an intense → radio source (Tau A), and also a source of X-rays and gamma-rays. The diameter of the → supernova remnant is about 6 light-years; it is expanding at velocity of 1000 km/sec.

crab; → nebula.

Crab pulsar
  پولسار ِ خرچنگ، تپار ِ ~   
pulsâr-e xarcang (#), tapâr-e ~ (#)

Fr.: pulsar du Crabe   

A → pulsar discovered in the center of the → Crab nebula in 1969. It is a highly magnetized → neutron star with a radius of 10-15 km that spins 30 times a second.

crab; → pulsar.

gahvâré (#)

Fr.: berceau   

1) A bed for a baby that is usually designed to rock back and forth when pushed gently. → Newton's cradle.
2) The place where something begins (

M.E. cradel, from O.E cradol akin to O.H.G. kratto "basket," Ger. Krätze "basket carried on the back;" Pers. gereh "knot;" Skt. granth- "to tie a knot" (Cheung 2007).

Gahvâré "cradle," variants gâhvâré, gowvâré, govâré, from Mid.Pers. gâhwârag "cot, cradle."

nâv (#)

Fr.: petit bateau   

A ship or other vessel.

M.E., from O.E. cræft "strength, skill;" cf. Ger. Kraft, D. kracht, O.N. kraptr. The "ship" meaning comes from the expression "vessel of small craft (trade)."

Nâv "ship;" O.Pers./Av. *nāv-, O.Pers. nāviyā- "fleet;" cf. Skt. nau-, nava- "ship, boat;" Gk. naus.

  ۱، ۲) لاوک، کندال؛ ۳) جام   
1, 2) lâvak, kandâl; 3) Jâm

Fr.: 1, 2) cratère; 3) Coupe   

1) A bowl-like depression on the rigid surface of a planet, satellite, or asteroid usually caused by the high-speed impact of a colliding object.
2) A bowl-shaped cavity at the mouth of a volcano.
3) The Cup. A small → constellation with faint stars, in the Southern Hemisphere, that lies next to → Hydra, at about 11h 20m right ascension, 15° south declination. Abbreviation: Crt; genitive: Crateris.

From Gk. krater "a wide, two-handled bowl for mixing wine with water," from kerannynai "to mix;" PIE base *kere- "to mix, confuse."

Lâvak "a large wooden bowl for kneading dough."
Kandâl "cavity, pit" in Qâeni, from kand- past tense stem of kandan "to dig" (Mid.Pers. kandan, O.Pers./Av. kan- "to dig," Skt. khan- "to dig") + -al, → -al.
Jâm "cup, chalice, goblet, bowl," Mid.Pers. jâm "vessel, goblet; glass," Av. yama- "glass, glass vessel," yâmô.pacika- "baked glass;" related to Skt. camasa- "a vessel used at sacrifices for drinking Soma, kind of flat dish or cup?"

crater floor
  کف ِ لاوک   
kaff-e lâvak

Fr.: sol de cratère   

The lower part of an → impact crater bounded by the rising → crater rim.

crater; → floor.

crater rim
  لبه‌ی ِ لاوک   
labe-ye lâvak

Fr.: bords de cratère   

That part an → impact crater that extends above the height of the local surface, usually in a circular or elliptical pattern.

crater; → rim.

  لاوک زایی، کندال زایی   
lâvakzâyi, kandâlzâyi

Fr.: cratérisation   

The process by which craters form on the surface of Solar System objects.

From → crater + → -ing

From lâvak or kandâl, → crater, + zâyi from zâ- present tense stem of zâdan "to give birth," Mid.Pers. zâtan, Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazâite, zâta- "born," cf. Skt. janati "begets, bears," L. gignere "to beget," PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget."

  لاوک‌چه، کندال‌چه   
lâvakcé, kandâlcé

Fr.: petit cratère   

A small crater often beside a larger one on the surface of the Moon or solid planets.

From → crater + -let diminutive suffix.

Lâvakcé, kandâlcé from lâvak, kandâl, → crater, + -cé diminutive suffix.

âfaridan (#)

Fr.: créer   

1) To cause to come into existence.
2) To produce or bring about by a course of action or behavior.

M.E., from L. creatus, p.p. of creare "to make, bring forth, produce," akin to crescere "arise, grow," → crescent.

Âfaridan, âfarin- "to create" (related to nifrin, nefrin "curse"); Mid.Pers. âfrin- "to create, bless;" Av. frī- "to rejoice, please;" cf. Skt. pray- "to please, enjoy, satisfy," O.H.G. friten "to look after;" Ger. frei, → free.

âfarinš (#)

Fr.: création   

1) The act of producing or causing to exist.
2) The act of being created. See also → creation operator.

Verbal noun of → create.

creation operator
  آپارگر ِ آفرینش   
âpârgar-e âfarineš

Fr.: opérateur de création   

An operator that acts on the → eigenstate describing the → harmonic oscillator to raise its → energy level by one step. The creation operator is the → Hermitian conjugate operator of the → annihilation operator.

creation; → operator.


Fr.: créationisme   

The religious belief that considers the account of creation given in Genesis to be a scientific description and rejects the Big Bang theory and the theory of evolution. Creationism is a → pseudoscience. Same as "creation science" and "scientific creationism."

creation; → -ism.

  ۱) ارجه؛ ۲) ارجه دادن   
1) arjé; 2) arjé dâdan

Fr.: 1) crédit; 2) créditer, faire crédit   

1a) Commendation or honor given for some action, quality, etc.
1b) A source of pride or honor.
1c) The ascription or acknowledgment of something as due or properly attributable to a person, institution, etc.
1d) Influence or authority resulting from the confidence of others or from one's reputation.
1e) A sum of money due to a person; anything valuable standing on the credit side of an account:
2) To believe; put confidence in; trust; have faith in (

M.E., from M.Fr. crédit "belief, trust," from It. credito, from L. creditum "a loan, thing entrusted to another," from p.p. of credere "to trust, entrust, believe."

Arjé, from arj "esteem, honor, dignity; price, worth, value," variant of arz "price, value," arzidan "to be worth;" Mid.Pers. arz- "to be worth;" Av. arj- "to be worth," arəjaiti "it is worth;" Proto-Ir. *Harj- "to be worth;" cf. Skt. arh- "to earn, be worth;" Gk. alphein "to earn, to obtain;" Lith. alga "salary, pay." "to be woth." Arjé dâdan with dâdan "to give, grant, yield," → datum.

crepe ring
  حلقه‌ی ِ پرنیان   
halqe-ye parniyân

Fr.: anneau de crèpe   

An alternative name for Saturn's C ring, which is a wide but faint ring located inside the B Ring. Discovered in 1850 by William and George Bond, it was termed "crepe" because it seemed to be composed of darker material than the brighter A and B Rings.

Crepe, from Fr. crêpe, from O.Fr. crespe, from L. crispa, fem. of crispus "curled;" → ring.

Halqé, → ring; parniyân "a kind of fine painted silk, a mantle of such silk."

crepuscular rays
  پرتوهای ِ نیمتابی   
partwohâ-ye nimtâbi

Fr.: rayons crépusculaire   

Rays of sunlight that appear to diverge from a single point in the sky when parallel columns of light, partially blocked by clouds, pour through gaps in clouds. They result from light scattering and an optical effect called perspective.

Crepuscular "of, pertaining to, or resembling twilight," from L. crepuscul(um), "twilight, dusk," from crepus-, from creper "dusky, dark."

Partowhâ "rays," from partow, → ray; nimtâbi "of, pertaining to, or resembling nimtâb" → twilight.

  هلال، برن   
helâl (#), barn (#)

Fr.: croissant   

The figure of the → Moon or an → inferior planet when it is less than half illuminated, as seen by the → observer.

From O.Fr. croissant, from L. crescentum, p.p. of crescere "to grow, increase; spring forth," from PIE base *ker- "to grow" (cf. Gk. kouros "boy," kore "girl," Pers. dialects Laki korr "son, boy," Lori kor "son, boy," Malayeri kora "boy," Kordi kur "son," Arm. serem "bring forth," serim "be born").

Helâl from Ar. Barn "the new moon," from Proto-Iranian *aparnâ- "unfilled," from negation prefix → a- + parnâ- "full;" cf. Mid.Pers. purr mâh "full moon," Av. pərənô-mâh- "full moon," Skt. purna-mâs- "full moon;" → full; → moon.

crescent Moon visibility
  دیاری ِ هلال ِ ماه   
diyâri-ye helâl-e mâh

Fr.: visibilité du croissant lunaire   

The first sighting of the → New Moon after its → conjunction with the Sun. Although the date and time of each New Moon can be computed exactly, the visibility of the lunar → crescent as a function of the → Moon's age depends upon many factors and cannot be predicted with certainty. The sighting within one day of New Moon is usually difficult. The crescent at this time is quite thin, has a low surface brightness, and can easily be lost in the → twilight. Generally, the lunar crescent will become visible to suitably-located, experienced observers with good sky conditions about one day after New Moon. However, the time that the crescent actually becomes visible varies from one month to another. The visibility depends on sky conditions and the location, experience, and preparation of the observer. Ignoring atmospheric conditions, the size and brightness of the lunar crescent depend on the → elongation which in turn depends on several factors: 1) The Moon's elongation at New Moon (the elongation of the Moon at New Moon is not necessarily 0). 2) The speed of the Moon in its elliptical orbit. 3) The distance of the Moon, and 4) The observer's location (parallax). The combined effect of the first three factors gives geocentric elongation of the Moon from the Sun at an age of one day which can vary between about 10 and 15 degrees. This large range of possible elongations in the one-day-old Moon is critical (US Naval Observatory).

crescent; → moon; → visibility.

crescent width
  پهنای ِ هلال، ~ برن   
pahnâ-ye helâl, ~ barn

Fr.: largeur de croissant   

The width of the lit area of the → Moon measured along the Moon's diameter.

crescent; → width.

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