An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

   Homepage   
   


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

<< < -ci cal Cam can car Car Cas cat CCD cel cen ces cha cha che chi chu cir cir Cla cle clo clu coa coe coh col col col Com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cre cri cro cry Cur cut Cyg > >>

Number of Results: 1251
covariant
  هم‌ورتا   
hamvartâ

Fr.: covariant   

In physics, having the property of remaining invariant in form under a Lorentz transformation.

com-; → variance.

covariant tensor
  تانسر ِ هم‌ورتا   
tânsor-e hamvartâ

Fr.: tenseur covariant   

A tensor whose components are distinguished by → subscript indices.

covariant; → tensor.

cover
  Yوشیدن؛ پوشش   
pušidan; pušeš (#)

Fr.: couvrir; couverture   

1) To spread over an area or surface.
2) Something that covers.

From M.E., from O.Fr. covrir, from L. cooperire "to cover over, overwhelm, bury," from the intensive prefix → com- + operire "to close, cover."

Pušidan "to cover; to put on," → envelope; pušeš, verbal noun of pušidan.

coverage
  پوشش   
pušeš (#)

Fr.: couverture   

1) General: The extent to which something is covered.
2) Astro.: The total area of the sky observed in a particular → sky survey. See also → fractional sky coverage.
3) The area within which a radio signal sent by a transmitter is received reliably .
4) In film making, the shooting of a scene from various views and using various exposures.

From → cover + -age a suffix forming abstract nouns.

cover.

cow
  گاو   
gâv (#)

Fr.: vache   

The female of bovine animals.

M.E. cou, cognate with Pers. Gâv, as below.

Mid.Pers. "bull, cow;" Av. gao-, gāvuš; cf. Skt. go-, gáus; Gk. bous ";" L. bos "ox, bull, cow;" O.E. cu "cow;" Ger. Kuh "cow;" PIE *gwows "cow."

Cowling model
  مدل ِ کاؤلینگ   
model-e Cowling

Fr.: modèle de Cowling   

A model of the internal structure of → massive stars in which a → convective core is surrounded by a large → radiative envelope. However, recent studies point to the presence of a thin → convection zone in the outer envelope of hot massive stars, beneath the → photosphere, which is caused by opacity peaks associated with iron and helium ionization. See also → iron convection zone.

After Thomas Cowling (1906-1990), a British astronomer, who put forward the model; → model.

CP-symmetry
  ٗامونی ِ بار-همالی   
hamâmuni-ye bâr-hamâli

Fr.: symétrie charge-parité   

Same as → charge-parity symmetry.

charge; → parity; → symmetry.

crab
  خرچنگ   
xarcang (#)

Fr.: crabe   

1) Any decapod crustacean of the suborder Brachyura, having the eyes on short stalks and a short, broad, more or less flattened body, the abdomen being small and folded under the thorax. → Cancer; → Crab nebula; → Crab pulsar.
2) Any of various other crustaceans, as the hermit crab, or other animals, as the horseshoe crab, resembling the true crabs (Dictionary.com).

M.E. crabbe; O.E. crabba, from Germanic *krab(b)- (cf. Low Ger. krabben "to scratch, claw"); PIE base *gerbh- "to scratch;" cf. Gk. graphein "to write."

Xarcang "crab," from Mid.Pers. karcang, cf. Lori qerženg from kar-, qer- + cang, ženg "claw." The meaning of the first component, xar/qer, is not clear. It may be related to Av. xruta-, xraoždva- "hard," as in xruždisma- "hard ground" (from xruždi- + zam-), and to the PIE *qarq- "to be hard." In that case, the Pers. term for crab would literally mean "hard claw."

Crab nebula (M1, NGC 1952)
  میغ ِ خرچنگ   
miq-e xarcang

Fr.: Nébuleuse du Crabe   

An expanding cloud of debris from the explosion of a → Type I supernova in the → constellation  → Taurus. Its light reached Earth in 1054 and was visible to the naked eye even in the daytime. Lying about 6,300 → light-years away, the Crab nebula is an intense → radio source (Tau A), and also a source of X-rays and gamma-rays. The diameter of the → supernova remnant is about 6 light-years; it is expanding at velocity of 1000 km/sec.

crab; → nebula.

Crab pulsar
  پولسار ِ خرچنگ، تپار ِ ~   
pulsâr-e xarcang (#), tapâr-e ~ (#)

Fr.: pulsar du Crabe   

A → pulsar discovered in the center of the → Crab nebula in 1969. It is a highly magnetized → neutron star with a radius of 10-15 km that spins 30 times a second.

crab; → pulsar.

cradle
  گهواره   
gahvâré (#)

Fr.: berceau   

1) A bed for a baby that is usually designed to rock back and forth when pushed gently. → Newton's cradle.
2) The place where something begins (Merriam-Webster.com).

M.E. cradel, from O.E cradol akin to O.H.G. kratto "basket," Ger. Krätze "basket carried on the back;" Pers. gereh "knot;" Skt. granth- "to tie a knot" (Cheung 2007).

Gahvâré "cradle," variants gâhvâré, gowvâré, govâré, from Mid.Pers. gâhwârag "cot, cradle."

craft
  ناو   
nâv (#)

Fr.: petit bateau   

A ship or other vessel.

M.E., from O.E. cræft "strength, skill;" cf. Ger. Kraft, D. kracht, O.N. kraptr. The "ship" meaning comes from the expression "vessel of small craft (trade)."

Nâv "ship;" O.Pers./Av. *nāv-, O.Pers. nāviyā- "fleet;" cf. Skt. nau-, nava- "ship, boat;" Gk. naus.

crater
  ۱، ۲) لاوک، کندال؛ ۳) جام   
1, 2) lâvak, kandâl; 3) Jâm

Fr.: 1, 2) cratère; 3) Coupe   

1) A bowl-like depression on the rigid surface of a planet, satellite, or asteroid usually caused by the high-speed impact of a colliding object.
2) A bowl-shaped cavity at the mouth of a volcano.
3) The Cup. A small → constellation with faint stars, in the Southern Hemisphere, that lies next to → Hydra, at about 11h 20m right ascension, 15° south declination. Abbreviation: Crt; genitive: Crateris.

From Gk. krater "a wide, two-handled bowl for mixing wine with water," from kerannynai "to mix;" PIE base *kere- "to mix, confuse."

Lâvak "a large wooden bowl for kneading dough."
Kandâl "cavity, pit" in Qâeni, from kand- past tense stem of kandan "to dig" (Mid.Pers. kandan, O.Pers./Av. kan- "to dig," Skt. khan- "to dig") + -al, → -al.
Jâm "cup, chalice, goblet, bowl," Mid.Pers. jâm "vessel, goblet; glass," Av. yama- "glass, glass vessel," yâmô.pacika- "baked glass;" related to Skt. camasa- "a vessel used at sacrifices for drinking Soma, kind of flat dish or cup?"

crater floor
  کف ِ لاوک   
kaff-e lâvak

Fr.: sol de cratère   

The lower part of an → impact crater bounded by the rising → crater rim.

crater; → floor.

crater rim
  لبه‌ی ِ لاوک   
labe-ye lâvak

Fr.: bords de cratère   

That part an → impact crater that extends above the height of the local surface, usually in a circular or elliptical pattern.

crater; → rim.

cratering
  لاوک زایی، کندال زایی   
lâvakzâyi, kandâlzâyi

Fr.: cratérisation   

The process by which craters form on the surface of Solar System objects.

From → crater + → -ing

From lâvak or kandâl, → crater, + zâyi from zâ- present tense stem of zâdan "to give birth," Mid.Pers. zâtan, Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazâite, zâta- "born," cf. Skt. janati "begets, bears," L. gignere "to beget," PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget."

craterlet
  لاوک‌چه، کندال‌چه   
lâvakcé, kandâlcé

Fr.: petit cratère   

A small crater often beside a larger one on the surface of the Moon or solid planets.

From → crater + -let diminutive suffix.

Lâvakcé, kandâlcé from lâvak, kandâl, → crater, + -cé diminutive suffix.

create
  آفریدن   
âfaridan (#)

Fr.: créer   

1) To cause to come into existence.
2) To produce or bring about by a course of action or behavior.

M.E., from L. creatus, p.p. of creare "to make, bring forth, produce," akin to crescere "arise, grow," → crescent.

Âfaridan, âfarin- "to create" (related to nifrin, nefrin "curse"); Mid.Pers. âfrin- "to create, bless;" Av. frī- "to rejoice, please;" cf. Skt. pray- "to please, enjoy, satisfy," O.H.G. friten "to look after;" Ger. frei, → free.

creation
  آفرینش   
âfarinš (#)

Fr.: création   

1) The act of producing or causing to exist.
2) The act of being created. See also → creation operator.

Verbal noun of → create.

creation operator
  آپارگر ِ آفرینش   
âpârgar-e âfarineš

Fr.: opérateur de création   

An operator that acts on the → eigenstate describing the → harmonic oscillator to raise its → energy level by one step. The creation operator is the → Hermitian conjugate operator of the → annihilation operator.

creation; → operator.

<< < -ci cal Cam can car Car Cas cat CCD cel cen ces cha cha che chi chu cir cir Cla cle clo clu coa coe coh col col col Com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cre cri cro cry Cur cut Cyg > >>