An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1252
Mâkiyân (#)

Fr.: Cygne   

The Swan. A prominent northern → constellation that lies in the glowing band of the Milky way, east of Lyra and north of Vulpecula, and represents a swan. The brightest stars of Cygnus form a cross, so it is also known as the Northern Cross. Abbreviation: Cyg, genitive: Cygni.

From L. cygnus "swan," from Gk. kuknos.

Mâkiyân "a hen, fowl."

Cygnus A
  ماکیان A   
Mâkiyân A

Fr.: Cygnus A   

The strongest extragalactic radio source in the sky approximately 109 light-years away in the → constellation  → Cygnus. Also called 3C 405.


Cygnus loop
  گردال ِ ماکیان   
gerdâl-e mâkiyân

Fr.: boucle du Cygne   

A large supernova remnant in the → constellation  → Cygnus, some 80 light-years across, lying about 2,500 light-years away. The loop is expanding at over 100 km/s and is thought to be about 30 000 years old.

Cygnus, → loop.

Cygnus OB association
  آهزش ِ OB ماکیان   
âhazeš-e OB Mâkiyân

Fr.: association OB Cygne   

One of nine → OB associations located in the Cygnus → constellation. The central association, → Cygnus OB2, is the most famous and the youngest of the Cygnus region. (L. Mahy et al. 2013, astro-ph/1301.0500 and references therein).

Cygnus; → OB star; → association.

Cygnus OB2 (Cyg OB2)
   OB2 ماکیان   
OB2 Mâkiyân

Fr.: Cygnus OB2   

The nearest example of a → massive star region of → star formation, containing 65 known → O-type stars and hundreds of → B-type stars. Cygnus OB2 lies at a distance of 1.45 → kpc. It is the central association, the most famous, and one of the youngest of the Cygnus region. Cyg OB2 possibly has two → populations with ages of 3.5-5 Myr, while the → O stars seem to belong to a younger population, aged about 2 Myr.

Cygnus; → OB association; 2 because there are several OB associations in Cygnus; → Cygnus OB association.

Cygnus X-1
  ماکیان X-۱   
Mâkiyân X-1

Fr.: Cygnus X-1   

A → binary system containing one of the best candidates for a → black hole. Cygnus X-1 was discovered as an → X-ray source in 1965. It is one of the brightest X-ray sources on the sky, so that it was detected by the earliest → X-ray observation attempts. This binary system, distant of 2.5 kpc, consists of the O9.7 Iab type → supergiant HDE 226868 and a → compact object orbiting around with a period of 5.6 days. The mass of the unseen companion, significantly larger than 5 → solar masses, suggests that it is a black hole. Focused → wind accretion from a → primary star being extremely close to filling the → Roche lobe drives the powerful source of the X-ray radiation.


ostovâné (#)

Fr.: cylindre   

The surface traced by one side of a rectangle rotating about its parallel side, the latter serving as axis.

From Fr. cylindre, from L. cylindrus "roller, cylinder," from Gk. kylindros "a cylinder, roller, roll," from kylindein "to roll."

Osotvâné, from sotun "column," Mid.Pers. stun, from O.Pers. stênâ "column," Av. stuna-, Skt. sthuna- "column."

ostovâne-yi (#)

Fr.: cylindrique   

Of, pertaining to, or having the form of a cylinder.

From L. cylindricus, from Gk. kylindrikos, see → cylinder; → -ic; → -al.

cylindrical coordinates
  هماراهای ِ استوانه‌ای   
hamârâhâ-ye ostovâne-yi (#)

Fr.: coordonnées cylindriques   

A coordinate system for a point in space, using an origin (O) and three perpendicular axes (Ox, Oy, Oz), in which a point (P) in space is specified by three numbers ρ, φ, z. The two first numbers, ρ and φ, are → polar coordinates for the vertical projection of P on the xy-plane, and z is the vertical distance of P from the xy-plane.

cylindrical; → coordinate.

cylindrical lens
  عدسی ِ استوانه‌ای   
adasi-ye ostovâneyi (#)

Fr.: lentille cylindrique   

A lens in which at least one surface is formed like a portion of a cylinder. Also called astigmatic lens.

cylinder; → lens.

  ماهی، مانگی   
mâhi (#), mângi (#)

Fr.: cynthien   

Referring to the Moon.

From L. Cynthia "the Moon," from Gk. Kynthia "woman from Kynthos." Kynthos was the mountain on Delos on which she and her twin brother Apollo were born.

Mâhi, mângi referring to mâh, mâng, → moon.

Nâhidi (#)

Fr.: cythérien   

Referring to the planet Venus.

From Cythera, in Gk. mythology another name of Aphrodite (Roman equivalent Venus), goddess of love and beauty, since she was believed to emerge from the Mediterranean island Cythera.

Nâhidi referring to Nâhid, planet Venus, Mid.Pers. Anahid "immaculate, unstained," goddess of pure waters and fertility, from Av. arədvi-sûra-anâhita, from arədvi- "increasing, rising," + sûra- "strong, powerful" (Skt. śūra- "valient, courageous") + anâhita "unstained," from an- negation prefix + âhita "spotted."

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