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1) timâr (#); 2) timârdan
Fr.: soin, souci, attention; 2) se soucier, s'intéresser
1a) A state of mind in which one is troubled; worry, anxiety, or concern;
a cause or object of worry, anxiety, concern, etc.
M.E., from O.E. caru, cearu "sorrow, anxiety, grief," cognate with Gothic kara, O.H.G. chara lament; M.En. caren, O.E. cearian, carian "be anxious, grieve."
Timâr "care, attendance on the sick; custody; sorrow;" Mid.Pers. têmâr "care; grief"
Fr.: consciecieux, soigneux, soigné
1) Cautious in one's actions.
afzal, šâh-taxté (#)
The Keel. A major → constellation in the southern sky, home to → Canopus (α Carinae), the second brightest star after → Sirius. Approximate position: RA 9h, Dec. -60° The constellation resulted from the division of a very large constellation representing → Argo Navis, the mythological Jason's ship. The partition into the constellations → Carina, → Puppis, → Vela, and → Pyxis appeared first on a sky map by Nicholas Louis de Lacaille (1763). Carina represents the bottom of the Ship Argo. Abbreviation: Car; genitive form: Carinae.
L. carina "the keel of a ship, i.e. the principal structural member of a ship, running lengthwise along the center line from bow to stern, to which the frames are attached."
Afzal "keel" in the jargon of the Caspian sea fishermen of Gilan province. Šâh-taxté "main plank."
Fr.: bras de Carène
A → spiral arm in the Milky Way galaxy seen at its best in the → constellation → Carina, but also crossing the constellations → Vela, → Crux, and → Centaurus. It may be a continuation of the → Sagittarius arm; the combined feature is called Sagittarius-Carina arm.
Fr.: Nébuleuse de la Carène
One of the most prominent → massive star formation regions of the → Milky Way, also known as NGC 3372. It is associated with a giant → H II region of the same name, which spans about 4 square degrees on the sky and is split by a remarkable V-shaped → dust lane. The Carina Nebula harbors several → star clusters, mainly → Trumpler 14, → Trumpler 16, and Collinder 228, including more than 60 known → O-type stars in addition to the extreme → LBV star → Eta Carinae. This gas and dust complex is associated with a → giant molecular cloud extending over about 130 pc. Large cavities within the molecular cloud are supposed to be carved out by the massive star clusters. There are also several → Herbig-Haro objects and → bipolar outflows.
Carme (Jupiter XI)
The fourteenth of Jupiter's known satellites; 40 km in size; → retrograde orbit. It was discovered by Nicholson in 1938.
In Gk mythology, Carme was a wife of Zeus, and the mother of Britomartis, a Cretan goddess.
Fr.: expérience Carnal-Mlynek
Named after O. Carnal and J. Mlynek, who first carried out this experiment in 1991 (Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2689); → experiment.
Fr.: cycle de Carnot
Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1796-1832), a French physicist and military engineer who, in his 1824 Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, gave the first successful theoretical account of heat engines; → cycle.
1) An atom or molecule responsible for an unidentified spectral feature,
such as a → diffuse interstellar band.
Carrier, from v. carry, from M.E. carien, from O. Norm-Fr. carier "to transport in a vehicle," from carre "cart," from L. carrum, carrus "two-wheeled wagon," from Gaul. karros, from PIE *krsos, from base *kers- "to run."
Barandé "carrier," from bordan "to carry," Mid.Pers. burdan, O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," Av. barəθre "to bear (infinitive)," barəθri "a female that bears (children), a mother," Skt. bharati "he carries," Gk. pherein, P.Gmc. *beranan, O.H.G. beran, Goth. bairan "to carry," O.E. beran "bear, bring, wear," PIE root *bher-; "to carry."
Fr.: rotation de Carrington
A system for counting rotations of the Sun based on the mean → synodic rotation period of the Sun. Initially, Lord Carrington determined the solar rotation rate by watching low-latitude → sunspots. He defined a fixed solar coordinate system that rotates in a sidereal frame exactly once every 25.38 days. This means that the solar rotation period, as viewed from the Earth, is assumed to be constant. However, the synodic rotation rate varies during the year because of the changing speed of the Earth in its orbit and the mean synodic period is about 27.2753 days. Carrington rotation number 1 began on November 9, 1853.
Named for Richard C. Harrington (1826-1875), British astronomer, who initiated the system; → rotation.
Of or relating to René → Descartes, his mathematical system, or his philosophy, especially with regard to its emphasis on logical analysis and its mechanistic interpretation of physical nature. → Cartesian coordinates; → Cartesian vortex theory.
From L. Cartesianus, from Cartesius, Latinized form of the name of French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes (1596-1650), + suffix -ian.
Fr.: coordonnées cartésiennes
A → coordinate system in which the position of a point is specified by two (in a plane) or three (in 3-dimensional space) → real numbers representing the distances from two perpendicular axes or from three perpendicular planes, respectively. René Descartes (1596-1650) introduced the coordinates system in his La Géométrie in 1637.
Cartesian vortex theory
negare-ye gerdšâr-e Descartes
Fr.: théorie des vortex de Descartes
A mechanical model put forward before Newton's theory of gravity to explain the revolution of the planets around the Sun. Descartes in his 1644 Principia Philosophiae postulated that the space between the Sun and the planets is filled with matter in the form of a fluid. The fluid rotates in countless whirlpools, one for each planet, thus carrying the planets along in their flow. The vortices vary in size and are contiguous as well as nested. Descartes believed that two objects can exert force on each other only when they are in physical contact. This is why he postulated that space is filled with matter. Newton refuted the vortex theory, using the principle of → action at a distance on which relies his → law of universal gravitation.
kahkašân-e carx-e arrâbé
Fr.: galaxie de la roue de charette
A galaxy with a striking ring-like feature lying about 400 million → light-years away in the → constellation → Sculptor. The ring-like structure, over 100,000 light-years in diameter, is composed of regions of → star formation filled with very bright, → massive stars. The shape results from collision with another smaller galaxy.
Kahkašân, → galaxy. Carx-e arrâbé "cartwheel," from carx, → wheel + arrâbé "cart, chariot," maybe related to Mid.Pers. ras, ray "wheel," O.Pers./Av. raθa- "wheel," Khotanese rrha- "car," Skt. ratha- "wheel," L. rota "wheel," PIE base *rotos "wheel."
âbšâr (#), peyšâr
From Fr., from It. cascata "waterfall," from cascare "to fall," from V.L. *casicare, from L. casum, p.p. of cadere "to fall," → case.
Âbšâr, from âb "water," → Aquarius, + šâr "pouring of water and liquids, waterfall;" peyšâr "waterfall succession," from pey "step, succession," as in peyâpey, + šâr. This word maybe related to Skt. sar- "to flow, run, hurry," Gk. iallo "I send out," L. salio "I jump." It may also be variant of Mod.Pers. cal-, calidan "to walk, be going," car-, caridan "to pasture, graze," Av. car- "to come and go," Skt. cari- "to move, walk, wander."
irang-e peyšâri, ~ âbšâri
Fr.: erreur en cascade
An error that amplifies as the process of calculation goes on.
ragbâr-e peyšâri, ~ âbšâri
Multiple generations of secondary cosmic rays when the primary particles produce a succession of secondaries which have the same effects as the primary.
Fr.: transition en cascade
A photon generation mechanism in an atom in which a transition initiates a series of secondary transitions from lower electronic levels.
1) An instance of the occurrence, or existence of something.
M.E. cas, from O.Fr. cas "an event, happening, situation," from L. casus "a chance, occasion, opportunity; accident," literally "a falling," from cadere "to fall, sink, settle down" (Sp. caer, caida); Sp. caso; It. caso; Port. caso; PIE root *kad- "to fall;" cf. Skt. śad- "to fall down;" Pers. kat, as below.
Kâté, from Iranian dialects/languages kat- "to fall" (with extension of the first vowel), as Laki: katen "to fall," kat "he/she fell," beko "fall!" (an insult); katyâ "fallen;" Lori: kat "event, error;" Kurd. (Soriani): kawtin "to fall, befall," kett "fallen;" Kurd. (Kurmanji): da.ketin "to fall down;" Lârestâni: kata "to fall;" Garkuyeyi: darkat, varkat "he/she fell (sudden death);" Gilaki (Langarud, Tâleš): katan "to fall," bakatam "I fell," dakatan "to fall (in a marsh, in a pit)," vakatan "to fall from tiredness, be exhausted," fakatan "to fall from (i.e., lose) reputation;" Tabari: dakətə "fallen," dakətən "to crash down," dakət.gu "stray cow;" Proto-Iranian *kat- "to fall;" cf. L. cadere, as above. Alternatively, from Proto-Ir. *kap-, *kaf- "to (be)fall, strike (down);" cf. Baluci kapag, kafag "to fall," kapt "(past tense) fell;" Bampuri kapte "fallen;" Kurd. (Sanandaj) kaften "to fall;" Gilaki jekaftan "to fall;" Nâyini derkaftan "to fall down."
Fr.: effet Casimir
A small attractive force that appears between two close parallel uncharged plates in a vacuum. It is due to quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. According to the quantum theory, the vacuum contains → virtual particles which are in a continuous state of fluctuation. Because the distance between the plates is very small, not every possible wavelength can exist in the space between the two plates, quite in contrast to the surrounding vacuum. The energy density decreases as the plates are moved closer, creating a negative pressure which pulls the plates together. The first successfully measurement of the effect was by Steve Lamoreaux in 1997. A more recent experiment in 2002 used a polystyrene sphere 200 μm in diameter coated in gold or aluminium. This was brought to within 0.1 μm of a flat disk coated with the same metals. The resulting attraction between them was monitored by the deviation of a laser beam. The Casimir force was measured to within 1% of the expected theoretical value.
After the Dutch physicist Hendrik Casimir (1909-2000), who predicted the phenomenon in 1948; → effect.