An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

   Homepage   
   


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

<< < -ci cal Cam can car Car Cas cat CCD cel cen ces cha cha che chi chu cir cir Cla cle clo clu coa coe coh col col col Com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cre cri cro cry Cur cut Cyg > >>

Number of Results: 1251
commonalty
  پاترم   
pâtram (#)

Fr.: peuple, foule   

The ordinary people, as distinguished from those with authority, rank, station, etc.; the common people. Also, commonality (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from M.Fr. comunalte, from comunal- "communal," → common, + -te "-ty," a suffix denoting state, quality, etc.

Mid.Pers. pâtram "common people, commonalty" (MacKenzie), variant pâyram, prefixed from ram "herd, flock," Mod.Pers. ramé "herd, flock."

commonness
  همداری   
hamdâri

Fr.: caractère commun, banalité   

The fact or state of being → common or happening often.

common; → -ness.

commune
  همداره   
hamdâré

Fr.: commune   

1) A small group of persons living together, sharing possessions, work, income, etc., and often pursuing unconventional lifestyles.
2) Any community organized for the protection and promotion of local interests, and subordinate to the state (Dictionary.com).

From M.Fr. commune "free city, group of citizens," from M.L. communia, noun use of neuter plural of L. adj. communis, literally "that which is common," from communis, → common.

Hamdâré, from hamdâr, → common.

communicate
  همدارگندن   
hamdârgandan

Fr.: communiquer   

1a) To impart knowledge of; make known.
1b) To give to another; impart; transmit (as a disease).
2a) To give or interchange thoughts, feelings, information, or the like, by writing, speaking, etc.
2b) To express thoughts, feelings, or information easily or effectively (Dictionary.com).

From L. communicatus, p.p. of communicare "to share, divide out; impart; inform; join, participate in," literally "to make common," from communis, → common.

Hamdârgandan, literally "to diffuse to the public," from hamdâr, → common, + gan, variant kan "to throw, diffuse" (as in parâgan-, parâgandan "to diffuse, disperse, scatter;" afgandan "to throw; to lay, place;" kandan "to dig; to extract"), from Proto-Ir. *kan- "to throw, place, put, disperse, → scatter" + -dan infinitive suffix.

communication
  همدارگنش   
hamdârganeš

Fr.: communication   

1) The act or process of communicating; fact of being communicated.
2) The imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun of → communicate.

communism
  همدارباوری، همدارگرایی   
hamdârbâvari, hamdâgerâyi

Fr.: communisme   

A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state (Dictionary.com).

commune; → -ism.

communitarian
  همدارگان‌گرا، همدارگان‌باور   
hamdârgângerâ, hamdârgânbâvar

Fr.: communautaire-   

A member of a communistic community; an advocate of such a community.

community; → -ary; → -an.

communitarianism
  همدارگان‌گرایی، همدارگان‌باوری   
hamdârgângerâyi, hamdârgânbâvari

Fr.: communautarisme   

A doctrine or system of social organization that upholds the importance of communities. It tends to lessen the focus on individual rights and increase the focus on communal responsibilities.

communitarian; → -ism.

communitary
  همدارگانی   
hamdârgâni

Fr.: communautaire-   

Of or relating to a community; communal.

community; → -ary.

community
  ۱) همدارگان؛ ۲) همداری   
1) hamdârgân; 2) hamdâri

Fr.: communauté   

1a) A social group whose members share common characteristics or interests, such as values, identity, and often a common location (e.g. a village, town, or neighborhood).
1b) Ecology: A group of populations of different species (plants and animals) within a specified location in space and time. 2) Common ownership or participation; joint possession.

Ultimately from L. communitas "partnership, society, fellowship," from communis, → common "common, public, general," + -itas, → -ity

Hamdârgân, from hamdâr, → common, + -gân suffix forming plural entities, from Mid.Pers. -gânag, -gâna, on the model of hamegân, → public.

commutation
  هم‌موتش   
hammuteš

Fr.: commutation   

General: A substitution, exchange, or interchange.
Electronics: The transfer of current from one channel to another in a gas tube.
Electricity: The reversal of direct current into alternating current.
Math: A commutative operation, where a . b = b . a.

Noun from → commute.

commutation rules
  رزن‌های ِ هم‌موتش   
razanhâ-ye hammuteš

Fr.: règles de commutation   

The specification of commutators of operators that in quantum physics correspond to the coordinates and momenta of a system.

commutation; → rule.

commutative
  هم‌موتنده   
hammutandé

Fr.: commutatif   

(adj.) Of or pertaining to → commutation.

Adj. from → commute.

commutative law
  قانون ِ هم‌موتشی   
qânun-e hammuteši

Fr.: loi commutative   

A principle holding for the operations of addition and multiplication (in some number domains) that asserts that the consequence of the given operation is not affected by the order in which the terms are considered. Thus x + y = y + x; x . y = y . x.

commutative; → law. The first use of the word commutative in this sense is ascribed to the French mathematician François Joseph Servois (1768-1847).

commutativity
  هم‌موتندگی   
hammutandegi

Fr.: commutativité   

The state or quality of being commutative.

Noun from → commutative.

commutator
  هم‌موتگر   
hammutgar

Fr.: commutateur   

Math.: The commutator of a and b is the element c of a group such that bac = ab.

Agent noun from → commute.

commute
  هم‌موتیدن   
hammutidan

Fr.: échanger   

To substitute (one thing for another); exchange. → mutation.
Math., logic: To satisfy or engage in a commutative operation.

From L. commutare "to change altogether," from → com- + mutare "to change," from PIE base *mei- "to change, go, move;" cf. Av. miθô "inverted, false," miθaoxta- "wrong spoken;" Skt. methati "changes, alternates, joins, meets," mithah "mutual, reciprocal;" L. meare "to go, pass," mutuus "done in exchange;" Goth. maidjan "to change;" E. prefix mis- (in mistake).

Hammutidan, from ham-com- + mut, from L. mutare cognate with Av. miθô, as above, + -idan infinitive suffix.

comoving
  هم‌جنب، هم‌میاو   
hamjonb, ham-miyâv

Fr.: comobile   

Moving together or in a correlated way.

From → com- "together," + pr.p. of → move.

Hamjonb, ham-miyâv "comoving," from ham- "together," → com-, + jonb or miyav "moving, mover," present stems of jondidan and miyâvidan "→ move."

comoving coordinates
  هماراهای ِ هم‌جنب   
hamârâhâ-ye hamjonb

Fr.: coordonnées comobiles   

A system of coordinates used in cosmology which is fixed with respect to the overall → Hubble flow of the universe. A given galaxy's location in comoving coordinates does not change as the Universe expands.

comoving; → frame.

comoving distance
  اپست ِ هم‌میاو   
apest-e ham-miyâv

Fr.: distance comobile   

1) A distance in → comoving coordinates between two points in space at a given cosmological time. In other words, the distance between two nearby objects in the Universe which remains constant with epoch if the two objects are moving with the → Hubble flow. More specifically, it is the → proper distance divided by the ratio of the → scale factor of the Universe between then, a(t)em, and now, a(t)obs: DC = Dproper . [a(t)obs/a(t)em]. In terms of → redshift (z), it is the proper distance multiplied by (1 + z). At the present epoch, i.e. a = a(tobs) = 1, DC = Dproper. If the objects have no peculiar velocity their comoving distance at any time is the same as their distance today.
The comoving distance of the → cosmic horizon is about 48 × 109light-years.

2) Transverse comoving distance: In a non-flat Universe, the comoving distance between two events at the same → redshift but separated on the sky by some angle. It is expressed by trigonometric functions of → curvature, → comoving distance, and the → Hubble distance accounting for the curvature of space. In a flat universe (Ωk) it is the same as the → comoving distance.

3) Line-of-sight comoving distance: The total line-of-sight comoving distance from us to a distant object computed by integrating the infinitesimal comoving distance contributions between nearby events along the radial ray from the time temit, when the light from the object was emitted, to the time tobs, when the object is observed.

comoving; → distance.

<< < -ci cal Cam can car Car Cas cat CCD cel cen ces cha cha che chi chu cir cir Cla cle clo clu coa coe coh col col col Com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cre cri cro cry Cur cut Cyg > >>