An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1234
cloudiness
  ابر‌آلودگی   
abrâludegi (#)

Fr.: état nuageux, nébulosité   

Same as → cloud cover.

From cloudy, from cloudy, from → cloud + → -ness.

cloudshine
  ابر‌تاب   
abr-tâb

Fr.: éclat de nuage   

Light from nearby stars scattered by → dust grains in low-density outer regions of → molecular clouds. It is seen not only in the → near infrared bands JHK, but also continuously from the visible to 5 μm. Cloudshine could be considered as an intermediate between → scattering in the visible and the → coreshine effect (Foster & Goodman, 2006, ApJ 636, L105). See also

cloud; → shine.

clover
  شبدر   
šabdar (#)

Fr.: trèfle   

Any of various plants of the genus Trifolium with three round, green leaves that are joined together. Clovers occasionally have leaves with four leaflets, instead of the usual three.

M.E. clovere; O.E. clafre; cf. M.L.G. klever, M.Du. claver, Du. klaver, O.S. kle, O.H.G. kleo, Ger. Klee "clover," of uncertain origin.

Šabdar, of unknown origin.

cloverleaf quasar (H1413+117)
  کو‌آسار ِ برگ ِ شبدر   
kuâsâr-e barg-e šabdar

Fr.: quasar du trèfle à quatre feuilles   

A bright → quasar whose image is split into four spots due to → gravitational lensing (Magain et al. 1988, Nature 334, 325). The four images of comparable brightness all lie within 0.7 arc seconds of the image center. The quasar has a → redshift of 2.56, corresponding to a distance of about 11 billion → light-years. Observations indicate that the lensing galaxy is located approximately at the geometrical center of the four images. A firm spectroscopic redshift of the lens has yet to be obtained; however, a → cluster of galaxies at a redshift of z = 1.7 has been suggested to account for the lensing of this system. H1413+117 was the first quasar to be detected in the → submillimeter wave → continuum and in → carbon monoxide emission.

So named because of the optical image; → clover; → leaf; → quasar.

clump
  گوده   
gudé

Fr.: grumeau   

1) A compact mass, in particular that contained in a less dense environment.
2) → molecular clump.

Clump, from Du. klomp "lump, mass," or Low Ger. klump.

Gudé "ball, bowl, tumour" in Gilaki, cf. Skt. guda- "ball, mouthful, lump, tumour," Gk. gloutos "rump," L. glomus "ball," globus "globe," Ger. Kugel, E. clot, PIE *gel- "to make into a ball."

clumped wind
  باد ِ گوده‌دار   
bâd-e gudedâr

Fr.: vent grumelé   

A → radiation-driven wind of → Wolf-Rayet and → O stars, which is not homogeneous, and contains compressions and rarefactions in the form of density clumps. Observationally, wind clumping appears as moving, small-scale structures in spectral line profiles. Indirect indicators of wind clumping include: electron scattering wings of emission lines, too-weak observed UV line profiles, and shapes of X-ray lines. The most likely physical explanation for the presence of these clumps is an instability in radiatively-driven winds. The inclusion of a clumping factor in the models of W-R winds reduces the → mass loss rates by a factor ~ 2-4 relative to homogeneous models. See also → clumping factor.

clumpy; → wind.

clumpiness
  گودگی   
gudegi

Fr.: grumelosité   

Of a → molecular cloud, the property of being made up of → clumps.
The extent with which a molecular cloud is → clumpy.

Clumpiness, from → clumpy + → -ness.

Gudegi from gudé, → clump, + -gi suffix forming noun from adjectives ending in .

clumping
  گوده‌داری   
gudedâri

Fr.: grumelage   

The massing together of material to form clumps. → wind clumping.

clump; → -ing.

clumping factor
  کروند ِ گوده‌داری   
karvand-e gudedâri

Fr.: facteur de grumelage   

The ratio fcl = <ρ2> / <ρ >2, where ρ represents the → stellar wind density and the brackets mean values. Unclumped wind has fcl = 1 and → clumping becomes significant for fcl≅ 4.

clumping; → factor.

clumpy
  گوده‌دار   
gudedâr

Fr.: grumeleux   

Of a → molecular cloud, being composed of → clumps.

Clumpy, from → clump + -y suffix meaning "full of or characterized by," from O.E. -ig, from P.Gmc. *-iga, akin to Gk. -ikos, L. -icus, → -ics.

Gudedâr, from gudé, → clump, + dâr "having, possessor," from dâštan "to have, to possess," O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maitain, keep in mind," Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law," Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne," L. firmus "firm, stable," Lith. daryti "to make," PIE *dher- "to hold, support."

cluster
  ۱) خوشه؛ ۲) خوشه‌بستن   
1) xušé (#); 2) xušé bastan (#)

Fr.: 1) amas; 2) s'agglomérer, se grouper   

1) A group of the same astronomical objects gathered or occurring closely together, such as → cluster of galaxies, → globular cluster, → open cluster, and so on.
2) To gather or grow into clusters. → Arches cluster, → Beehive Cluster, → bound cluster, → Brocchi's Cluster, → Bullet cluster, → Central cluster, → cluster core, → cluster mass function, → cluster of galaxies, → clustering, → clustering law, → Coma cluste, → Galactic center cluster, → galactic cluster, → galaxy cluster, → globular cluster, → Hercules cluster, → hierarchical clustering, → intercluster medium, → Local Supercluster, → moving cluster, → open cluster, → Perseus Cluster, → pre-cluster core, → protocluster, → rich cluster, → S cluster, → Sgr A* cluster, → star cluster, → super star cluster, → supercluster, → superclustering, → tight star cluster, → Trapezium cluster, → unbound cluster, → Ursa Major cluster.

O.E. clyster "cluster," probably akin to O.E. clott "clot".

Xušé "cluster, a bunch of grapes, an ear of corn," (Laki huša), from Mid.Pers. hošag or xušak; cf. Skt. guccha- "bundle, bunch of flowers, cluster of blossom, clump;" xušé bastan, with bastan "to bind, shut; to clot; to form seed buds", from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind.

cluster core
  مغزه‌ی ِ خوشه   
maqze-ye xušé

Fr.: cœur d'amas   

The central part of a cluster (globular, galaxies, etc.) where the spatial density of the objects making up the cluster is much higher than the average value.

cluster; → core.

cluster mass function (CMF)
  کریای ِ جرم ِ خوشه   
karyâ-ye jerm-e xušé

Fr.: fonction de masse d'amas   

An empirical power-law relation representing the number of clusters as a function of their mass. It is defined as: N(M)dM ∝ MdM, where the exponent α has an estimated value of about 2 and dM is the mass interval. It is believed that this is a universal law applying to a variety of objects including globular clusters, massive young clusters, and H II regions.

cluster; → mass; → function.

cluster of galaxies
  خوشه‌ی ِ کهکشانی   
xuše-ye kahkašâni (#)

Fr.: amas de galaxies   

Same as → galaxy cluster.

cluster; → galaxy.

clustering
  خوشه‌بندی   
xušé bandi

Fr.: agglomération, groupement   

Grouping of a number of similar astronomical objects.

Noun from verb → cluster.

clustering law
  قانون ِ خوشه‌بندی   
qânun-e xušé bandi

Fr.: loi de groupement   

An empirical power-law representing the number of stellar clusters as a function of the number of stars per cluster within an interval. It is expressed as: N(N*) dN*∝ N* dN*, where N(N*) is the number of clusters containing N* stars and dN* is the interval in star number. It is believed that this relationship applies to a variety of systems, including stellar clusters, globular clusters, H II regions (Oey et al. 2004, AJ 127, 1632).

clustering; → law.

clutter
  آلوزه   
âluzé

Fr.:   

A disorderly heap or assemblage; a state or condition of confusion.

Variant of clotter (now obsolete), from to clot + -er.

Âluzé, from Kurd. âluz, Tabari âluz, âliz "messy, disorderly, untidy," Dehxodâ âlofté "astonished; mad; broken," âloftan "to rage, grow mad."

CMB
     
CMB

Fr.: CMB   

See → cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR).

CMB, short for → Cosmic  → Microwave  → Background.

CMB angular power spectrum
  بیناب ِ توانی ِ زاویه‌ای ِ CMB   
binâb-e tavâni-ye zâviye-yi-e CMB

Fr.: spectre de puissance angulaire du CMB   

A plot displaying the amplitude of → cosmic microwave background anisotropy as a function of angular size or → multipole index. Same as → angular fluctuation spectrum. The plot, based the on WMAP and other data, shows a plateau at large angular or length scales (→ Sachs-Wolfe plateau), then a series of peaks at progressively smaller scales. These features arise from the gravity-driven acoustic oscillations of the coupled photon-baryon fluid in the early Universe (→ baryon acoustic oscillation). In particular, a strong peak is seen on an angular scale (at l ~220), corresponding to the physical length of the → sound horizon at the → recombination era. It depends on the curvature of space. If space is positively curved, then this sound horizon scale will appear larger on the sky than in a flat Universe (the first peak will move to the left). The second peak (l ~ 550), which is the first harmonic of the main peak, relates to the baryon/photon ratio. The third peak can be used to help constrain the total matter density.

angular; → fluctuation; → spectrum.

CMB lensing
  لنزش ِ CMB   
lenzeš-e CMB

Fr.: effet de lentille du rayonnement du fond cosmique, ~ ~ du CMB   

The gravitational effect of the intervening large-scale potentials on the → cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). This effect smoothes out the temperature peaks and alters the statistics of the CMB.

CMB; → lensing.

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