An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1234
  کتا-، کاتا-، کات-، کت-   
katâ-, kâtâ-, kât-, kat-

Fr.: cata-   

A prefix meaning "down," also "against; back; by, about; with, along," occurring originally  in loanwords from Greek; variants cat- and cath-, as in catalog, cataclysm, cataract, cathode, catastrophe, etc.

From Gk. kata-, before vowels kat-, from kata "down from, down to."

Katâ-, kâtâ-, kât-, kat-, loan from Gk., as above.


Fr.: cataclysme   

1) A devastating flood; deluge.
2) Any violent upheaval that brings about great changes or causes great demolition. See also: → catastrophe.

From Fr. cataclysme, from L. cataclysmos "deluge," from Gk. kataklysmos, from kataklyzein "to inundate," from kata "down" + klyzein "to wash."

Gatlur "great flood," from gat "great, large, big" [Mo'in, Dehxodâ] + lur "flood" [Mo'in, Dehxodâ], cf. Gk. louein "to wash," L. luere "to wash," Bret. laouer "trough," PIE *lou- "to wash." Variants of lur in Pers. dialects are: Lori, Kordi laf, lafow, lafaw, Tabari , all meaning "flood."


Fr.: cataclysmique   

1) Of, pertaining to, or resulting from a → cataclysm.
2) Having the effect of, or of the nature of, a cataclysm. → cataclysmic variable.

cataclysm; → -ic.

cataclysmic variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ گتلوری   
vartande-ye gatluri

Fr.: variable cataclysmique   

A → variable star that shows a sudden and dramatic change in brightness, including → flare stars, → novae, and some types of → symbiotic stars. They are believed to be very → close binary systems consisting of an → accreting → white dwarf  → primary and an evolved → late-type secondary star that has filled its → Roche lobe. For systems with an → accretion disk, it is believed that a thermal instability is the cause of repetitive outbursts observed in cataclysmic variables called → dwarf novae.

cataclysmic; → variable.

kâtâlog (#)

Fr.: catalogue   

A list or record of items systematically arranged with descriptive details. → Index Catalogue; → Messier catalog; → New General Catalogue.

M.E. cathaloge, cateloge, from M.Fr. catalogue, from L.L. catalogus, from Gk. katalogos "a list, register," from kata "down, completely" + legein "to say, count," → -logy.

Kâtâlog, loan from Fr., as above.

catalog place
  جای ِ کاتالوگی   
jâ-ye kâtâlogi

Fr.: position catalogue   

Same as catalog position and → mean catalog place.

catalog; → place.

catalog position
  نهش ِ کاتالوگی   
neheš-e kâtâlogi

Fr.: position catalogue   

Same as catalog place and → mean catalog place.

catalog; → position.


Fr.: catastrophe   

A great, often sudden calamity; a complete failure; a sudden violent change in the earth's surface. → cataclysm.

From Gk. katastrophe "an overturning, ruin," from katastrephein "to overturn, ruin" from kata "down" + strephein "to turn."

Negunzâr, from negun "overturned, inverted" + -zâr suffix denoting profusion, abundance, as in kârzâr "a field of battle; combat" šurezâr "unfertile, salty ground; nitrous earth," xoškzâr "arid land," and so forth.

  کتاگری، کتاگریک   
katâgori, katâgorik

Fr.: catégorique   

1) Unambiguously explicit and direct, without exceptions or conditions.
2) Relating to or included in a → category.
3) Logic: Of a → proposition (→ syllogism), consisting of a → subject and a → predicate, each of which denotes a class, and having one of the → Aristotelian forms.

category; → -ic; → -al.

categorical proposition
  گزاره‌ی ِ کتاگریک   
gozâre-ye katâgorik

Fr.: proposition catégorique   

In a → syllogism, a → proposition or statement that deals with inclusion or exclusion of members of → subject classes in → predicate classes. Categorical propositions are of four basic forms, see → Aristotelian form.

categorical; → proposition.

categorical syllogism
  باهمشماری ِ کتاگریک   
bâhamšomâri-ye katâgorik

Fr.: syllogisme catégirique   

A standard → syllogism that consists of three → categorical propositions in which there are three terms, and each term appears exactly twice. The three terms in a standard categorical syllogism are the → major term, → mino term, and → middle term.

categorical; → syllogism.


Fr.: catégorise   

To place in a → category or class.

category; → -ize.


Fr.: catégorie   

1) A group of things that are similar in some way.
2a) Philo.: In Aristotelian logic, any of the ten different ways (substance, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, position, possession, doing, and undergoing) in which the subject of a proposition may relate to its predicate. For example, the proposition "All men are mortal" belongs to the Category of Quality since it tells us what "all men" are like, namely mortal.
2b) Philo.: In Kant's system, any of the twelve (four groups of three each) pure concepts of the understanding that constitute necessary conditions of experience and correspond with the classes of judgements treated in formal logic. According to Kant, the categories are results of the mind's activity, and are distinguished from sensation. The categories have, furthermore, like space and time relations, a peculiar universality. They are, in other words, a priori.
3) Math.: An entity consisting of a class of objects and a class of → morphisms between those objects that satisfy certain properties.

M.Fr. catégorie, from L.L. categoria, from Gk. kategoria, from kategorein "to speak against; to accuse, assert, predicate," from kata "down, against, back," → cata-, + agorein "to speak before public assembly," from agora "marketplace, public square" (from ageirein "to gather"); cognate with L. grex, gregis "herd, troop, crowd;" Skt. gramah- "heap, crowd, community;" Old Icelandic kremja "to squeeze;" O.E. crammian "to cram;" Latvian  gùrste "bundle of flask;" Polish garnac "to gather;" Russ. gorst' "cupped hand;" cf. Pers. gor-, gal-, etc., as below; PIE base *ger- "to gather."

Katâgor, from katâ-, → cata-, + gor- "to gather," ultimately from PIE *ger-, as above. We put forward that the following Iranian words derive from the above PIE base *ger- "to gather":
goruh "crowd, troop, band;"
gallé (conversion of r to l) "herd, flock;"
jarra (Laki) "group; stick bundle;"
gerd in gerd âvardan "to collect, bring together" probably not related to gerd "round, circular;"
xalam (štiyâni) "herd, flock;"
xelima (Qâyeni) "herd;"
korand, korang "a ring made by hunters or troops;"
korka (Laki) "bundle of harvested ears of wheat;"
gola, golé "bundle of hair; bunch"
gola-gâh "place of gathering;"
gurâb "market place in a village, agora;"
There are dozens of villages all-over Iran named Gorâb, Gurâb, Gela, Gola, Gala and their combinations with other words (e.g. Galadeh, Galazan, Galavand) that probably refer to places of gathering.
One can also mention village names such as Agora, Gore, Gere(kalâ), Garaku, Oger, and so on in Mâzandarân;
Khotanese (prefixed ham-) gris "to assemble."

category theory
  نگره‌ی ِ کتاگر   
negare-ye katâgor

Fr.: théorie des catégories   

A theory that deals with the concept of → category and generalizes the → set theory.

category; → theory.

kâtod (#)

Fr.: cathode   

A negatively charged electrode that is the source of electrons in an electrical device.

Gk. kathodos "descent, a way down," from kata- "down" + hodos "way, path."

cathode ray
  پرتو ِ کاتودی   
partw-e kâtodi (#)

Fr.: rayon cathodique   

A kind of ray generated at the cathode in a vacuum tube, by the electrical discharge.

cathode; →ray.

catholic astrolabe
  اسطرلاب ِ هرگانی   
ostorlâb-e hargâni

Fr.: astrolabe catholique   

Same as → universal astrolabe.

Catholic, M.E., from Fr. catholique, from Church Latin catholicus "universal, general," from Gk. katholikos, from phrase kath' holou "on the whole, in general," from kata "about," → cata-, + genitive of holos "whole," → holo-; → astrolabe.

Ostorlâb, → astrolabe; hargâni, → universal.

kâtion (#)

Fr.: cation   

Chemistry: A → positively charged → ion that is attracted to the → cathode in electrolysis. Any positively charged atom or group of atoms (opposed to → anion).

From cat-, → cathod, + → ion.

catoptric light
  نور ِ بازتابیک   
nur-e bâztâbik

Fr.: lumière catoptrique   

Light that is reflected from a curved surface mirror.

catoprtics; → light.

catoptric system
  راژمان ِ بازتابیک   
râžmân-e bâztâbik

Fr.: système catoprtique   

An optical system in which the light is reflected only.

catoprtics; → system.

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