An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1234
cross reference
  بازبرد ِ دوسویه، ~ چندسویه   
bâzbord-e dosuyé (#), ~ candsuyé (#)

Fr.: référence croisée   

Reference from one part or element of a book or data catalog to something in another for further information.

cross; → reference.

cross section
  سکنج‌گاه   
sekanjgâh

Fr.: 1) section plane; 2) section efficace   

1) Math: The intersection of a plane with a geometric figure, usually at right angles to an axis of symmetry.
2) Physics: A quantity that expresses the effective area that a given particle presents as a target to another incident particle, giving a measure of the probability that the incident particle will induce a particular atomic or nuclear reaction. Also called collision cross section. The cross section has the dimensions of a surface. In nuclear and particle physics, the commonly used units for the cross section are the barn and cm2.

In classical mechanics, the cross section for the collision of a point particle with a hard sphere is just be the surface of a section through the middle of the sphere. This explains the name "cross section." → cross; → section.

cross-dispersing spectrograph
  بیناب‌نگار با پاششِ چلیپا‌یی، ~ ~ ~ خاجی   
binâbnegâr bâ pâšeâš-e chalipaayi, ~ ~ ~ xâji

Fr.: spectrographe à dispersion croisée   

A spectrograph that utilizes cross dispersion.

cross; → dispersion; → spectrograph.

crosshairs
  تاربست   
târbast (#)

Fr.: réticule   

A system of two perpendicular fine threads of wire placed in the focus of the eyepiece of an optical instrument and used as a sighting reference.

cross; → hair.

Târbast, from târ + bast. The first component târ "thread, string, wire," cognate with tanidan, tan- "to spin, twist, weave," → tension; the second component bast "to bind; to arrange" (past stem of bastan, from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," → band.

crossing time
  زمان ِ گذر   
zamân-e gozar (#)

Fr.: temps de traversée   

A concept used for checking the stability of a group of mass such as a cluster of galaxies or a stellar cluster. The crossing time is given by tc = R/V, where R is the average projected radial distance of group members from the center of mass and V the Gaussian dispersion in internal velocity.

cross; → time.

Zamân, → time; gozar "crossing," infinitive gozaštan, Mid.Pers. vitartan "to pass," Sogdian wytr "to go," O.Pers./Av. vitar- "to put across," from prefix vi- "away, apart," + tar- "to cross over" (Skt. tr- "to cross over," tarati "crosses," cf. Av. taro, Skt. tirah "through, beyond," L. trans "beyond," Ger. durch, E. through; PIE base *tr- "through").

crow
  کلاغ   
kalâq (#)

Fr.: corbeau, corvus   

Any of several large oscine birds of the genus Corvus, of the family Corvidae, having a long, stout bill, lustrous black plumage, and a wedge-shaped tail, as the common C. brachyrhynchos, of North America (Dictionary.com).

M.E. crowe, O.E. crawe, imitative of brd's cry, akin to Pers. kalâq, → crow.

Kalâq, variants Semnâni kala, Kashani kilo, Afghan karqan, Baluci guraq, Tabari kalaj, Gilaki kalac, Kurd. kala, qel, Lori qelâ, Malâyeri qalâq; PIE root *ker- imitative of harsh sounds; cf. L. crepare "to creak, clatter," cornix "crow," corvus "raven;" Gk. korax "raven," korone "crow;" O.C.S. kruku "raven."

crowd
  ۱) چپیره؛ ۲) چپیریدن   
1) capiré (#); 2) capiridan

Fr.: 1) foule, multitude; 2) entasser   

1a) A large number of persons gathered closely together; throng.
1b) Any large number of persons.
1c) Any group or set of persons with something in common.
2) To gather in large numbers; throng; swarm (Dictionary.com).
crowded, → crowded field, → crowding.

M.E. crowden, from O.E. crudan "to press, crush;" akin to M.Du. cruden "to press, push," M.H.G. kroten "to press, oppress," Norwegian kryda "to crowd."

Capiré (Dehxodâ), variants cabiré, capar "crowd, troop, people gathered for something." Capiré, from capir, from capar, ultimately from Proto-Ir. *ui-par-, from *par- "to fill;" cf. Av. pər- "to fill, stuff with," pouru- "full, much, many;" O.Pers. paru- "much, many;" Pers. anbâr "ricks, storehouse," por, bol "full, much, many;" PIE *pel- "to fill;" → population.

crowded
  چپیرناک، چپیریده   
capirnâk, capiridé

Fr.: encombré, bondé   

Filled so that there is little or no room for anyone or anything else. → crowded field.

Past participle of → crowd.

crowded field
  میدان ِ چپیرناک   
meydân-e capirnâk

Fr.: champ encombré   

An area on the sky where a large number of objects, commonly stars, are seen gathered together, usually as revealed by imaging.

crowded; → field.

crowding
  چپیرش، چپیرناکی   
capireš, capirnâki

Fr.: encombrement   

1) The state or action of filling a particular place in large numbers.
2) For a → field of view, state of containing a large number of objects.

Verbal noun of → crowd.

crowdsourcing
  چپیره‌خنی   
capiré-xani

Fr.: crowdsourcing   

The process of procuring needed services by soliciting a large group of people outside the demanding company, society, or institute. Two examples of crowdsourcing in astronomy involve → variable star studies and search for → meteorites.

Combination of → crowd and → outsourcing.

crown glass
  کرون، شیشه‌ی ِ ~   
crown, šiše-ye ~ (#)

Fr.: crown, crown-glass   

An optical, alkali-lime glass which is harder than → flint glass, and has a lower → index of refraction and lower → dispersion. It is used in the production of → compound lenses.

Such named because of the crown-like shape given to the blank after the process of blowing the glass; M.E. coroune, from O.Fr. corone, from L. corona "crown," originally "wreath, garland;" cf. Gk. korone "anything curved, kind of crown;" → glass.

Crussard curve
  خم ِ کروسار   
xam-e Crussard

Fr.: courbe de Crussard   

A curve, on the pressure versus specific volume plane, representing the locus of all the theoretically possible states that can be attained by the → detonation products of an → explosive. The Crussard curve relates to the → Hugoniot curve through a translation caused by the chemical energy liberated during the detonation. The Crussard curve consists of several portions characterizing various burning regimes: detonations (strong and weak), a forbidden region, and → deflagrations (weak and strong).

Named after the French engineer Jules Louis Crussard (1876-1959), who conducted several pioneering studies in mining techniques, in particular on shock waves (Ondes de choc et onde explosive, Bulletin de la Société de l'industrie minérale de Saint-Etienne, 4e série, tome VI, 1907); → curve.

crust
  پوسته   
pusté (#)

Fr.: croûte   

Any more or less hard or stiff outer covering or surface. → Earth's crust.

M.E., from O.Fr. crouste from L. crusta "rind, crust, shell, bark;" cf. Skt. krud- "make hard, thicken;" Av. xruzdra- "hard;" Gk. kryos "icy cold," krystallos "ice, crystal;" Lett. kruwesis "frozen mud;" O.H.G. hrosa "ice, crust;" O.E. hruse "earth;" PIE base *kreus- "to begin to freeze, form a crust."

Pusté, → shell.

Crux
  چلیپا   
Calipâ (#)

Fr.: Croix   

The Southern Cross. A small but brilliant → constellation in the southern hemisphere, at 12h 30m right ascension, 60° south declination. Also known as → Southern Cross. The constellation contains four bright stars so situated that they depict the extremities of a Latin cross. Abbreviation Cru; genitive Crucis.

L. crux "cross, gibbet" is a rendering of the Gk. stauros "an upright stake or pole," in the Vulgate, the Latin translation of the Bible attributed to Saint Jerome at the end of the fourth century A.D.

Calipâ, loanword from Aramean.

cryogenics
  زمزاییک، زمزایی   
zamzâyik (#), zamzâyi (#)

Fr.: cryogénie   

A branch of physics that studies the methods of producing very low temperatures (below 150 °C) and the behavior of materials and processes at those temperatures.

From cryo- "freezing" + -gen(y) "having to do with production" + -ics.
Cryo-, from Gk. kryos "icy cold," krystallos "ice, crystal," PIE base *kreus- "to begin to freeze, form a crust;" cf. L. crusta "crust, shell, bark," Skt. krud- "make hard, thicken;" Av. xruzdra- "hard," Lett. kruwesis "frozen mud;" O.H.G. hrosa "ice, crust;" O.E. hruse "earth."
-geny, from Gk. geneia, from genes "born," cf. Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazâite, zâta- "born," cf. Skt. janati "begets, bears," L. gignere "to beget," PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget."
-ics.

Zamâzâyik, from zam "cold (weather)" + zâyi "generating" + -ik.
Mod.Pers. zam "cold," Mid.Pers. zam "winter," Av. zimô "winter," Skt. hima- "cold, frost," Ossetic zymæg/zumæg "winter," Gk. xeimon "winter," L. hiems "winter," Lith. ziema "winter," PIE *gheim- "snow, winter."
Zâyi, from zâ- present tense stem of zâdan "to give birth," Mid.Pers. zâtan, Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazâite, zâta- "born," cf. Skt. janati "begets, bears," L. gignere "to beget," PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget," as above.
-ics.

cryostat
  زمپا   
zampâ (#)

Fr.: cryostat   

An apparatus for maintaining an enclosed area at a stable low temperature especially below 0°C.

Cryostat, from cryo- "freezing," → cryogenics + suffix → -stat.

crystal
  بلور   
bolur (#)

Fr.: cristal   

A solidified substance in which the constituent atoms, ions, or molecules form a three-dimensionally periodic arrangement.

O.E. cristal "clear ice, clear mineral," from O.Fr. cristal, from L. crystallum "crystal, ice," from Gk. krystallos, from kryos "frost," from PIE base *kreus- "to begin to freeze, form a crust," → cryogenics.

Bolur, from Mid.Pers. bêlûr "crystal," Manichean Parthian bylwr, maybe of Indian origin, Pali veluriya- "a precious stone;" cf. Skt. vaidurya-, perhaps related to Tamil veliru, vilar "to become pale," or to the southern Indian city Velur, modern Belur. The Mid.Pers. word is perhaps the carrier between the Indian word and the Gk. beryllos, which has given rise to L. beryllus, O.Fr. beryl, E. beryl "the beryllium aluminum silicate, Be3Al2Si6O18."

crystal lattice
  جاره‌ی ِ بلور   
jâre-ye bolur

Fr.: réseau cristallin   

The network of the points in space at which the atoms, molecules, or ions of a → crystal are regularly repeated.

crystal; → lattice.

crystal structure
  ساختار ِ بلور   
sâxtâr-e bolur

Fr.: structure de cristal   

The geometric framework to which a crystal may be referred and the arrangement of atoms or electron density distribution relative to that framework, usually determined by X-ray diffraction measurements.

crystal; → structure.

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