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Fr.: Centaurus A
The closest (3.8 ± 0.1 Mpc) → radio galaxy with a physical age of about 560 Myr, associated with the massive → elliptical galaxy NGC 5128. The nucleus harbours a → supermassive black hole, with a mass (5.5 ± 3.0) × 107 Msol derived from stellar → kinematics. A prominent → dust lane, with → starburst, crosses the central parts. Centaurus A shows a twin → jet in → radio and → X-ray bands, symmetrical on parsec scales but with evident asymmetry on kpc scales. The main (i.e. northern) jet which is markedly brighter than the counterjet, is seen at a viewing angle of approximately 50°. From photoionization models for such a viewing angle, the → Lorentz factor of the jet is derived to be ≤ 5. A large number of radio and X-ray → knots is discernible in the jet on kpc scales with the radio knots of larger proper motions showing comparatively little X-ray emission (see S. Wykes et al. 2015, MNRAS 447, 1005, and references therein).
Situated in the → Centaurus constellation.
Fr.: superamas du Centaur
The nearest large → supercluster. It is dominated by the → galaxy cluster A3526 (→ Abell catalog). The Centaurus supercluster is a long structure that stretches away from us. The most distant of the clusters, A3581, is about 300 million → light-years away.
1) markaz (#), kayân (#); 2) markazidan
Fr.: 1) centre; 2) centrer
1) The point that is equidistant from all the points on a circle or sphere.
M.E. centre, from O.Fr. centre, from L. centrum "center," originally fixed point of the two points of a compass, from Gk. kentron "sharp point, goad," from kentein "stitch," from PIE *kent- "to prick."
Markaz "center," from Ar.; kayân, Mod.Pers. "the point made by the compasses, that is the center of a circle" [Dehxodâ]; markazidan, infinitive from markaz, → center, + -idan infinitive suffix.
center of attraction
Fr.: centre d'attraction
A point toward which a force on a body is always directed.
center of gravity
Fr.: centre de gravité
Gerânigâh, from gerâni→ gravity + -gâh "place."
center of inertia
Fr.: centre d'inertie
center of mass
Fr.: centre de masse
Fr.: longueur d'onde centrale
Center of a filter passband measured at 50% of peak transmittance.
Prefix denoting one-hundredth of, in metric units; e.g. centimeter, 0.01 of meter.
Fr., from L. centi,- "hundred," from centum "hundred," Gk. hekaton, Av. satem-, Mod.Pers. sad, Skt. satam-, P.Gmc. *hunda- "hundred," Goth. hund, O.H.G. hunt, O.Ir. cet, Bret. kant, PIE *kmtom "hundred."
Sânti-, from Fr., → above paragraph.
Fr.: amas central
One of the three obscured → Galactic center clusters, which contains the supermassive black hole → Sgr A*. The first stars observed in the Central cluster were evolved → massive stars showing strong He I emission lines (2.058 microns) in the near infrared K band. Subsequently more than 80 massive stars were detected including various types of → Wolf-Rayet stars, as well as → O-type and → B-type → supergiants and → dwarfs (see, e.g. Martins et al. 2007, A&A 468, 233).
Fr.: éclipse centrale
An eclipse during which the axis of the lunar shadow cone intersects the Earth's surface (in the case of solar eclipses) or the axis of the terrestrial shadow cone intersects the Moon's surface (in the case of lunar eclipses). The total and annular solar eclipses are usually central. They can also be not central; then, they are visible only from places situated at high latitudes (M.S.: SDE).
Fr.: force centrale
A → force that is always directed toward a fixed point and whose → magnitude depends only on the distance from that point. Mathematically, F is a central force if and only if: F = f(r)r1 = f(r)r/r, where r1 = r/r is a unit → vector in the direction of r. If f(r) < 0 the force is said to be → attractive toward the source. If f(r) > 0 the force is said to be → repulsive from the source. In other words, a central force is one whose → potential, V(r), depends only on the → distance from the source. → Gravitational force and → electrostatic force are central, with V(r)∝ 1/r.
central limit theorem
farbin-e hadd-e markazi
Fr.: théorème central limite
A statement about the characteristics of the sampling distribution of means of → random samples from a given → statistical population. For any set of independent, identically distributed random variables, X1, X2,..., Xn, with a → mean μ and → variance σ2, the distribution of the means is equal to the mean of the population from which the samples were drawn. Moreover, if the original population has a → normal distribution, the sampling distribution of means will also be normal. If the original population is not normally distributed, the sampling distribution of means will increasingly approximate a normal distribution as sample size increases.
Central Molecular Zone (CMZ)
zonâr-e molekuli-ye markazi
Fr.: zone moléculaire centrale
A vast, turbulent region encircling the → Milky Way's nucleus that contains a large fraction of the → Galaxy's dense → molecular clouds and → star formation regions. The CMZ is about 400 pc × 100 pc in size and contains at least 107→ solar masses of → giant molecular clouds, approximately 10% of the Galaxy's molecular gas. The gas in the CMZ is at higher temperature than typical giant molecular clouds and has high velocity dispersion reflecting the → turbulent nature of the gas in the area.
Fr.: pic central
The uplift of the central parts of the → crater floor due to the impacting force of a large → meteorite. The shock wave entering the Earth will first move in as a compressional wave (P-wave), but after passage of the compressional wave an expansion wave (rarefaction wave) will move back toward the surface. This will cause the floor of the crater to be uplifted and may also cause the rock around the rim of the crater to bent upward.
central processing unit (CPU)
yekâ-ye âmâyeš-e markazi
Fr.: unité centrale de traitement
The primary component of a → computer that processes instructions. It runs the → operating system and → applications, constantly receiving input from the user or active → software programs. The CPU has two typical components: 1) Control Unit, which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them. 2) Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), which handles arithmetic and logical operations.
Fr.: pic central
Same as → central peak.
Fr.: longueur d'onde centrale
1) In an interference filter, the wavelength of peak
Acting or moving in a direction away from the axis of rotation or the center of a circle along which a body is moving.
From Mod.L., coined 1687 by Sir Isaac Newton from L. centri-, combining form of centrum, → center, + fugere "to run away, flee."
Markaz-goriz, from markaz, → center, + goriz "running away," from gorixtan, gorizidan "to run away," Mid.Pers. virextan, proto-Iranian *vi-raik, from vi- "apart, asunder" + *raik, Av. raek- "to leave, set free, let off," Mid./Mod.Pers. reg/rig (in mordé-rig "inheritance," Skt. ric- "to leave," rinakti "gives up, evacuates," Gk. leipein "to leave," L. linquere "to leave," from PIE *linkw-, from *leikw- "to leave behind" (cf. Goth. leihvan, O.E. lænan "to lend;" O.H.G. lihan "to borrow;" O.N. lan "loan").