An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1281
simple harmonic motion
  جنبش ِ هماهنگ ِ ساده   
jonbeš-e hamâhang-e sâdé

Fr.: mouvement harmonique   

The motion of a body subjected to a restraining force which is directly proportional to the displacement from a fixed point in the line of motion. The equation of simple harmonic motion is given by x = A sin(ωt + θ0), where x is the body's displacement from equilibrium position, A is the → amplitude, or the magnitude of harmonic oscillations, ω is the → angular frequency, t is the time elapsed, and θ0 is the → initial phase angle.

simple; → harmonic; → motion.

simple harmonic oscillator
  نوشگر ِ هماهنگ ِ ساده   
navešgar-e hamâhang-e sâdé

Fr.: oscillateur harmonique simple   

An oscillator whose force is proportional to its extension, according to → Hooke's law. The way the oscillator moves is called → simple harmonic motion.

simple; → harmonic; → oscillator.

simple population
  پرینش ِ ساده   
porineš-e sâdé

Fr.: population simple   

A set of stars resulting from a spatially (≤ few pc) and temporally (≤ Myr) correlated star formation event.

simple; → population.

simple root
  ریشه‌ی ِ ساده   
riše-ye sâdé

Fr.: racine simple   

A → rootx0 of function f(x), if f(x0) = 0 and df/dx | x0 = 0. See also → double root.

simple; → root.


Fr.: simplexe   

A generalization of the simplest closed configuration that can be made from straight line segments. For example, a → triangle is a 2-simplex because it is in two → dimensions, and → tetrahedron is a 3-simplex because it is in three dimensions (Steven Schwartzman, An Etymological Dictionary of Mathematical Terms Used in English, 1994).

Simplex, literally "uncomplicated, → simple," from sim-, from PIE root *sem- "one, once, together" + plek- "to fold." "folded [only] once."

Taktâft, literally "folded once," from tak "→ single, alone," + tâft, contraction of tâfté "plated, twisted, fold," as in hamtâft, → complex.

simplex method
  روش ِ تکتافتی   
raveš-e taktâfti

Fr.: méthode du simplexe   

An → algorithm for solving the classical → linear programming problem; developed by George B. Dantzig in 1947. The simplex method is an → iterative method, solving a system of → linear equations in each of its steps, and stopping when either the → optimum is reached, or the solution proves infeasible. The basic method remained pretty much the same over the years, though there were many refinements targeted at improving performance (e.g. using sparse matrix techniques), numerical accuracy and stability, as well as solving special classes of problems, such as mixed-integer programming (Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing, FOLDOC).

simplex; → method.

  ساده‌کرد، ساده‌شد   
sâde-kard, sâde-šod

Fr.: simplification   

The act of simplifying, or the fact of being simplified.

Verbal noun of → simplify.

  ساده کردن   
sâdé kardan (#)

Fr.: simplifier   

1) To make less complex or complicated.
2) Math.: Reduce an → expression by → algebraic manipulations.

simple + epenthesis -i- + → -fy.


Fr.: simulacres   

Minute images or replicas of objects supposed by ancient atomist philosophers to be shed from any object and used in the explanation of vision. According to Democritus (c. 460-c. 370 BC) and Epicurus (341-270 BC), these replicas or effigies, called eidola, were perpetually peeled off the surfaces of things and caused vision by entering in the eye.

L. translation of eidola by Lucretius (1st Century BC), from L. simulacrum "likeness, image," from simulare "to → simulate."

  مانندیدن، همانند ساختن   
mânandidan, hamânand sâxtan

Fr.: simuler   

To create a likeness or model of something (a situation, system, or the like).

M.E., from L. simulatus, p.p. of simulare "to imitate," from stem of similis "like;" cognate with Pers. ham "together, with; same, equally, even" (Mid.Pers. ham-, like L. com- and Gk. syn- with neither of which it is cognate. O.Pers./Av. ham-, Skt. sam-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same," Skt. sama-, Gk. homos-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-. The Av. ham- appears in various forms: han- (before gutturals, palatals, dentals) and also hem-, hen-).

Mânadidan verb from mânand "resembling, like," variant mânestan "to resemble;" Mid.Pers. mânag "like, resembling;" Av. man- "to resemble;" hamânad sâxtan, from hamânand, from ham-, as above, + mânad + sâxtan "to make, build."

  مانندش، همانندسازی   
mânandeš, hamânand sâzi

Fr.: simulation   

The construction of a mathematical model to reproduce the characteristics of a phenomenon, system, or process, often using a computer, in order to infer information or solve problems.

Verbal noun of → simulate.

hamzamâni (#)

Fr.: simultanéité   

The property of events occurring → simultaneously.

Noun from → simultaneous; → -ity.

hamzamân (#)

Fr.: simultané   

1) General: Happening, existing, or operating at the same time.
2) In a → space-time diagram, the points that have the same time values. Two events that are simultaneous in one → inertial frame are not, in general, simultaneous in another inertial reference frame moving relative to the first. → relativity of simultaneity. Compare → synchronous.

From L.L. simultaneus, from L. simul "at the same time" + -taneous, abstracted from → spontaneous.

Hamzamân, from ham-, → syn- + zamân, → time.

sinus (#)

Fr.: sinus   

In trigonometry, the function of an acute angle of a right triangle represented by the ratio of the opposite side to the hypotenuse.

Greek mathematicians were not aware of the advantages of sine and instead used chord. The invention of this function is a great Indian contribution. It seems that Aryabhata (c. AD 500) was the first who coined a term in Skt. for this concept: árdha-jiyā- "half chord," which was later shortened to jiyā- "chord." This Skt. word was subsequently loaned in Ar. and corrupted to jayb (جیب). Later on Gerard of Cremona (1114-1187), who translated Ar. scientific texts in L., took the corrupted Skt. form jayb for Ar. jayb "pocket, bundle, bosom, fold," and translated it to L. sinus "pocket, fold, curve." The Skt. jiyā- "chord, bow-string;" is cognate with Av. jiiā- "bow-string;" Pers. zeh "chord, string;" → zij "astronomical table;" PIE base *gwhi- "thread, tendon" (from which derive also Gk. bios "bow;" L. filum "thread;" Russ. žca "thread").

Sinus loanword from Fr., as above.

sine wave
  موج ِ سینوسی   
mowj-e sinusi (#)

Fr.: onde sinusoïdale   

A periodic oscillation that is defined by the function y = sin x.

sine; → wave.

  تک، تکتا   
tak, taktâ

Fr.: seul, isolé   

Only one in number; one only; unique; sole.

M.E., from O.Fr. sengle "being one, separate," from L. singulus "one, individual, separate," from sim- (stem of simplus) + diminutive suffix, → -ule.

Tak"single, alone," related to tâq "odd, single," tâ, tâh "piece, part; fold, plait, ply;" Mid.Pers. tak "single," tâg, tâk, tâi "unit, piece."

single scattering
  پراکنش ِ تک   
parâkaneš-e tak

Fr.: diffusion unique, ~ simple   

A type of scattering where photons are scattered only once. Single scattering dominates in → optically thin media, since photons have a high probability of exiting the medium (e.g., a thin cloud) before being scattered again.

single; → scattering.

single-dish observation
  نپاهش ِ تک-جام   
nepâhešè-e tak-jâm

Fr.: observation avec antenne uinique   

A radio astronomical observation which uses only one antenna, in contrast to interferometric observations.

single; → dish; → observation.

single-lined binary
  دُرین ِ تک-خطه   
dorin-e tak-xatté

Fr.: binaire à une seule raie   

A → spectroscopic binary in which only one set of spectral lines is detectable. The binary nature of the system is deduced from the fact that the spectral lines exhibit periodic → Doppler shifts due to orbital motions in the system. See also → double-lined binary.

single; → line; → binary.


Fr.: singulet   

A single unit; an unpaired or separate item. → doublet; → octet; → quadruplet.

From → single + -et diminutive suffix, M.E. from O.F. -et (masc.), -ette (fem.).

Taktâyé, literally "single-folded," from tak, → single, + -tâyé, from tâ- "fold, plait, ply; piece, part;" Mid.Pers. tâg "piece, part" + -yé nuance suffix.

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