An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1301
similar matrices
  ماتریس‌های ِ همانند   
mâtrishâ-ye hamânand (#)

Fr.: matrices similaires   

Two → square matrices A and B that are related by B = X-1AX, where X is a square → nonsingular matrix.

similar; → matrix.

similar polygons
  چندبرهای ِ همانند   
candbarhâ-ye hamânand

Fr.: polygone similaires   

Polygons that are exactly the same shape, but can be different sizes.

similar; → polygon.

similarity
  همانندی   
hamânandi (#)

Fr.: similarité   

The state of being similar; likeness; resemblance.

similar; → -ity.

similarity transformation
  ترادیسش ِ همانندی   
tarâdiseš-e hamânandi

Fr.: transformation de similarité   

1) A transformation that preserves angles and changes all distances in the same ratio.
2) A transformation of the form B = X-1AX relating two → square matrices A and B.

similarity; → transformation.

simple
  ساده   
sâdé (#)

Fr.: simple   

1) Chem.: Composed of only one → substance or → element.
2) Math.: Consisting of, involving, or describable by → terms of the → first degree.
3) Music: Uncompounded or without overtones.

M.E., from O.Fr. simple, from L. simplus "simple, single," variant of simplex, from PIE root *sem- "one, together;" cf. Pers. ham "together," → com-, Skt. sam "together;" + *plac- "-fold," from PIE *plek- "to plait," → multiply.

Sâdé "simple, unmixed, smooth, erased, plain;" cf. Khotanese sāta- "smooth;" Baluchi sāt/sāy-, sāh- "to shave;" Av. si-, sā- "to sharpen, cut;" Skt. śā- "to sharpen, whet" (Cheung 2007); see also → precise.

simple event
  رویداد ِ ساده   
ruydâd-e sâdé

Fr.: événement simple   

Statistics: An event consisting of a single point of the → sample space.

simple; → event.

simple fraction
  برخه‌ی ِ ساده   
barxe-ye sâdé

Fr.: fraction simple   

A fraction in which the → numerator and → denominator are positive → integer numbers. Compare → compound fraction.

simple; → fraction.

simple harmonic motion
  جنبش ِ هماهنگ ِ ساده   
jonbeš-e hamâhang-e sâdé

Fr.: mouvement harmonique   

The motion of a body subjected to a restraining force which is directly proportional to the displacement from a fixed point in the line of motion. The equation of simple harmonic motion is given by x = A sin(ωt + θ0), where x is the body's displacement from equilibrium position, A is the → amplitude, or the magnitude of harmonic oscillations, ω is the → angular frequency, t is the time elapsed, and θ0 is the → initial phase angle.

simple; → harmonic; → motion.

simple harmonic oscillator
  نوشگر ِ هماهنگ ِ ساده   
navešgar-e hamâhang-e sâdé

Fr.: oscillateur harmonique simple   

An oscillator whose force is proportional to its extension, according to → Hooke's law. The way the oscillator moves is called → simple harmonic motion.

simple; → harmonic; → oscillator.

simple population
  پرینش ِ ساده   
porineš-e sâdé

Fr.: population simple   

A set of stars resulting from a spatially (≤ few pc) and temporally (≤ Myr) correlated star formation event.

simple; → population.

simple root
  ریشه‌ی ِ ساده   
riše-ye sâdé

Fr.: racine simple   

A → rootx0 of function f(x), if f(x0) = 0 and df/dx | x0 = 0. See also → double root.

simple; → root.

simplex
  تکتافت   
taktâft

Fr.: simplexe   

A generalization of the simplest closed configuration that can be made from straight line segments. For example, a → triangle is a 2-simplex because it is in two → dimensions, and → tetrahedron is a 3-simplex because it is in three dimensions (Steven Schwartzman, An Etymological Dictionary of Mathematical Terms Used in English, 1994).

Simplex, literally "uncomplicated, → simple," from sim-, from PIE root *sem- "one, once, together" + plek- "to fold." "folded [only] once."

Taktâft, literally "folded once," from tak "→ single, alone," + tâft, contraction of tâfté "plated, twisted, fold," as in hamtâft, → complex.

simplex method
  روش ِ تکتافتی   
raveš-e taktâfti

Fr.: méthode du simplexe   

An → algorithm for solving the classical → linear programming problem; developed by George B. Dantzig in 1947. The simplex method is an → iterative method, solving a system of → linear equations in each of its steps, and stopping when either the → optimum is reached, or the solution proves infeasible. The basic method remained pretty much the same over the years, though there were many refinements targeted at improving performance (e.g. using sparse matrix techniques), numerical accuracy and stability, as well as solving special classes of problems, such as mixed-integer programming (Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing, FOLDOC).

simplex; → method.

simplification
  ساده‌کرد، ساده‌شد   
sâde-kard, sâde-šod

Fr.: simplification   

The act of simplifying, or the fact of being simplified.

Verbal noun of → simplify.

simplify
  ساده کردن   
sâdé kardan (#)

Fr.: simplifier   

1) To make less complex or complicated.
2) Math.: Reduce an → expression by → algebraic manipulations.

simple + epenthesis -i- + → -fy.

simulacra
  سیمولاکرا   
simulâkrâ

Fr.: simulacres   

Minute images or replicas of objects supposed by ancient atomist philosophers to be shed from any object and used in the explanation of vision. According to Democritus (c. 460-c. 370 BC) and Epicurus (341-270 BC), these replicas or effigies, called eidola, were perpetually peeled off the surfaces of things and caused vision by entering in the eye.

L. translation of eidola by Lucretius (1st Century BC), from L. simulacrum "likeness, image," from simulare "to → simulate."

simulate
  مانندیدن، همانند ساختن   
mânandidan, hamânand sâxtan

Fr.: simuler   

To create a likeness or model of something (a situation, system, or the like).

M.E., from L. simulatus, p.p. of simulare "to imitate," from stem of similis "like;" cognate with Pers. ham "together, with; same, equally, even" (Mid.Pers. ham-, like L. com- and Gk. syn- with neither of which it is cognate. O.Pers./Av. ham-, Skt. sam-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same," Skt. sama-, Gk. homos-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-. The Av. ham- appears in various forms: han- (before gutturals, palatals, dentals) and also hem-, hen-).

Mânadidan verb from mânand "resembling, like," variant mânestan "to resemble;" Mid.Pers. mânag "like, resembling;" Av. man- "to resemble;" hamânad sâxtan, from hamânand, from ham-, as above, + mânad + sâxtan "to make, build."

simulation
  مانندش، همانندسازی   
mânandeš, hamânand sâzi

Fr.: simulation   

The construction of a mathematical model to reproduce the characteristics of a phenomenon, system, or process, often using a computer, in order to infer information or solve problems.

Verbal noun of → simulate.

simultaneity
  همزمانی   
hamzamâni (#)

Fr.: simultanéité   

The property of events occurring → simultaneously.

Noun from → simultaneous; → -ity.

simultaneous
  همزمان   
hamzamân (#)

Fr.: simultané   

1) General: Happening, existing, or operating at the same time.
2) In a → space-time diagram, the points that have the same time values. Two events that are simultaneous in one → inertial frame are not, in general, simultaneous in another inertial reference frame moving relative to the first. → relativity of simultaneity. Compare → synchronous.

From L.L. simultaneus, from L. simul "at the same time" + -taneous, abstracted from → spontaneous.

Hamzamân, from ham-, → syn- + zamân, → time.

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