An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1290

Fr.: spectrohéliogramme   

An image of the Sun taken in the light of one particular wavelength.

spectro-; → heliogram.


Fr.: spectrohéliographe   

An instrument for recording monochromatic images of the Sun.

spectro-; → heliograph.


Fr.: spectromètre   

1) A spectrograph in which the spectrum is recorded by electronic means so that wavelength, intensity, etc. can be measured.
2) An instrument for determining the distribution of energies in a beam of particles.

spectro-; → -meter.


Fr.: spectrophotomètre   

An instrument designed to measure the intensity of a particular spectral line or a series of spectral lines.

spectro-; → photometer.


Fr.: spectrophotométrie   

Of or relating to → spectrophotometry.

spectrum; → photometry.


Fr.: spectrophotométrie   

In astronomy, measurement of the absolute fluxes of the components of different frequencies in the spectrum of a light source.

spectrum; → photometry.

binâb-namâ (#)

Fr.: spectroscope   

An optical instrument for forming and examining the spectrum of a light source. The instrument contains a narrow slit through which the light enters. The slit is placed at the focus of a positive lens called the collimator lens to form a beam of parallel rays. The beam of light falls on a dispersing element (prism, grating, or grism) which separates the light into its colors. This spectrum can be observed with an ocular (in the spectroscope) or recorded on a detector (in the spectrograph).

spectro-; → -scope.

  بیناب‌نمایی، بیناب‌نماییک   
binâbnemâyi, binâbnemaayik

Fr.: spectroscopique   

Of or relating to → spectroscopy.

spectro-; → -scopy; → -ic.

spectroscopic binary
  دُرین ِ بیناب‌نمایی   
dorin-e binâbnemâyi

Fr.: binaire spectroscopique   

A binary system that cannot be resolved by a telescope, but can be identified by means of the Doppler shift of the spectral lines. As stars revolve, they alternately approach and recede in the line of sight. This motion is shown up in their spectra as a periodic oscillation or doubling of spectral lines.

spectroscopic; → binary.

spectroscopic degeneracy
  واگنی ِ بیناب‌نمایی   
vâgeni-ye binâbnemâyi

Fr.: dégénérescence spectroscopique   

The situation in which spectroscopic features in a certain optical region are not sensitive enough to distinguish adjacent → luminosity classes, for instance → dwarf stars from → giant stars.

spectroscopic; → degeneracy.

spectroscopic mass
  جرم ِ بیناب‌نمایی   
jerm binâbnemâyi

Fr.: masse spectroscopique   

The stellar mass derived from → gravity (g) and radius (R), expressed by M = gR2/G, where G is the → gravitational constant. Spectroscopic mass conveys the actual mass of the star, in contrast with its → initial mass.

spectroscopic; → mass.

spectroscopic parallax
  دیدگشت ِ بیناب‌نمایی   
didgašt-e binâbnamâyi

Fr.: parallaxe spectroscopique   

The measurement of a stellar distance by the absolute magnitude derived from the luminosity criteria of the spectrum and the apparent magnitude of the star.

spectroscopic; → parallax.

spectroscopic variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ بیناب‌نمایی   
vartande-ye binâbnemâyi

Fr.: variable spectroscopique   

A → variable star that displays changes in its → spectrum. In such stars line intensities may vary and new lines may appear. Examples include → AG Carinae, HD 108, HD 191612, and HD 148937.

spectroscopic; → variable.


Fr.: spectroscopie   

The study of spectral lines from different atoms and molecules. Spectroscopy is an important part of studying the physical and chemical properties of astronomical objects.

Spectro- combining form of → spectrum + → -scopy.

binâb (#)

Fr.: spectre   

The → electromagnetic radiation divided into its constituting wavelengths or frequencies.

From L. spectrum "appearance, image, apparition," from specere "to look at, view;" Gk. skopein "to behold, look, consider," skeptesthai "to look at;" PIE base *spek- "to see;" cf. Av. spas-, spaš- "to attend to; to serve; spy," spasiieiti "looks at, perceives" (Mod.Pers. sepâs "kindness, favor, thanksgiving," sepâsidan "to praise for benefits received);" Skt. paś- "to see, watch," spasati "sees;" L. specere "to look at;" O.H.G. spehônn "to spy," Ger. spähen "to spy."

Binâb "a vision;" Mid.Pers. wênâb "vision," from wên-, present stem of didan "to see;" O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" cf. Skt. veda "I know;" Gk. oida "I know," idein "to see;" L. videre "to see;" PIE base *weid- "to know, to see."

specular reflection
  بازتاب ِ آینه‌وار   
bâztâb-e âyenevâr (#)

Fr.: réflexion spéculaire   

The reflection of light waves in which the reflected waves travel in a definite direction, and the directions of the incident and reflected waves make equal angles with a line perpendicular to the reflecting surface. Same as → regular reflection; opposite of → diffuse reflection.

From L. specularis, from speculum "mirror;" → reflection.

Bâztâb, → reflection; âyenevâr "mirror-like," from âyené, → mirror + -vâr similarity suffix.


Fr.: spéculer   

To guess possible answers to a question when there are not enough information to be certain.

Back formation from O.Fr. speculation, from L. speculatus, p.p. of speculari "to watch over, observe," from specula "watch tower," from specere "to look at, regard," cognate with Av. spas- "to attend; to serve," spasiieiti "looks at, perceives;" Pers. sepâs "kindness, thanksgiving;" Skt. spasati "sees;" Gk. skopein "to behold, look, consider," skeptesthai "to look at;" O.H.G. spehhon "to spy;" Ger. spähen "to spy;" PIE *spek- "to look around, observe."

Gâsidan infinitive from gâs, from Av. kas- "to look at, see," with extension of the vowel and change of the last phoneme from k to g, as in and cognate with negâh (Mid.Pers. nikâh), → look, âgâh (Mid.Pers. âkâh) "aware" (→ Space Situational Awareness), pargast "God forbid!," and maybe (Lori, Laki, Torbat-Heydarie-yi) gâs "perhaps," (Shirâzi, Fasâyi) gâsam "maybe;" cf. Skt. kāś- "to become visible, appear;" Gk. tekmor, tekmar "sign, mark;" PIE base *kwek- "to appear, show."


Fr.: spéculation   

The act or an instance of speculating.

Verbal noun of → speculate.

  ۱) سخن؛ ۲) سخنرانی   
1) soxan (#); 2) soxanrâni (#)

Fr.: 1) parole; 2) discours, allocution   

1) The faculty or power of speaking; oral communication; ability to express one's thoughts and emotions by speech sounds and gesture (
2) A form of communication in spoken language, made by a speaker before an audience for a given purpose (

M.E. speche; O.E. spæc; cf. Dan. sprog, O.S. spraca, O.Fris. spreke, Du. spraak, O.H.G. sprahha, Ger. Sprache "speech."

Soxan "speech, utterance, word;" Mid.Pers. saxwan "word, speech;" O.Pers. θanh- "to declare, say," aθaham "I said;" Av. səngh- "to declare," sənghāmi "I say;" cf. Skt. śams- "to praise, declare;" L. censere "to estimate, think; decide."

tondi (#)

Fr.: vitesse   

The ratio of the distance covered to the time taken by a moving body. Speed in a specified direction is → velocity.

M.E. spede "good luck, prosperity, rapidity;" O.E. sped "success, prosperity, advancement;" cf. O.S. spod "success," Du. spoed "haste, speed," O.H.G. spuot "success," O.H.G. spuoten "to haste;" from PIE base *spe- "to thrive, prosper" (cf. Skt. sphā- "to increase, become fat;" L. sperare "to hope;" O.C.S. spechu "endeavor;" Lith. speju "to have leisure").

Tondi "speed," from tond "swift, rapid, brisk; fierce, severe" (Mid.Pers. tund "sharp, violent;" Sogdian tund "violent;" cf. Skt. tod- "to thrust, give a push," tudáti "he thrusts;" L. tundere "to thrust, to hit" (Fr. percer, E. pierce, ultimately from L. pertusus, from p.p. of pertundere "to thrust or bore through;" PIE base *(s)teud- "to thrust, to beat") + noun suffix -i.

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