An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1281
string theory
  نگره‌ی ِ ریسمان   
negare-ye rismân

Fr.: théorie des cordes   

The latest theory of fundamental physics in which the basic entity is a one-dimensional → brane rather than the "zero-dimensional" point of conventional elementary particle physics. The one-dimensional string-like objects exist in the normal four dimensions of → space-time plus additional dimensions, the total dimensions being ten, eleven, or twenty-six depending on the version of the theory. Particles are strings that vibrate in different ways to account for their various properties.

string; → theory.

strip
  نوار   
navâr (#)

Fr.: bande   

A long, flat, narrow piece of something. → instability strip.

M.E. probably from M.L.G. strippe "strap, thong," related to stripe.

Navâr "strip."

Stromgren sphere
  سپهر ِ استرومگرن، کره‌ی ِ ~   
sepehr-e Stömgren, kore-ye ~

Fr.: sphère de Strömgren   

A theoretical sphere of → ionized hydrogen created by energetic → ultravioletphotons of a hot, → massive star embedded in a uniform interstellar → molecular cloud and lying at the center of the sphere. → H II region.

Named after Bengt Strömgren (1908-1987), a Danish astrophysicist, who put forward the first and simplest version of the model in 1939; → sphere.

Stromgren system
  راژمان ِ استرومگرن   
râžmân-e Strömgren

Fr.: système de Strömgren   

A → photometric system, also called the → uvby system.

Stromgren sphere; → system.

strong
  سترگ، زورمند، نیرومند   
sotorg, zurmand, nirumand (#)

Fr.: fort, puissant   

Having an intense, powerful, or vivid effect.
strong anthropic principle, → strong arm spiral galaxy, → strong encounter, → strong force, → strong gravitational lensing, → strong interaction, → strong lensing.

O.E. strang "physically powerful, powerful in effect, forceful;" cf. O.N. strangr "strong," Du. streng "strict, rigorous," O.H.G. strang "strong, bold, hard," Ger. streng "strict, rigorous."

Sotorg "large, strong," Mid.Pers. sturg "fierce; gross, coarse," Av. stūra- "strong, large, rough," stāuuišta- "strongest, biggest," cf. Skt. sthūrá- "strong, big, massy, thick," Gk. stylos "column, pillar," M.L.G. stūr "big, strong, coarse."
Zurmand, from zur, → strength, + -mand possession suffix.
Nirumand, from niru, → force + -mand possession suffix.

strong anthropic principle
  پروز ِ انسان-هستی ِ سترگ   
parvaz-e ensân-hasti-ye sotorg

Fr.: principe anthropique fort   

A version of the → anthropic principle that claims that the → Universe must be suitable for the formation of → intelligent life at some point. Compared with the → weak anthropic principle, this version is very controversial. Its implications are highly speculative from a scientific viewpoint.

strong; → anthropic; → principle.

strong arm spiral galaxy
  کهکشان ِ مارپیچ با بازوی ِ سترگ   
kahkešân-e mârpic bâ bâzu-ye setorg

Fr.: galaxie spirale à forts bras   

A galaxy with prominent stellar → spiral arms and little star formation between stellar arms, such as M51.

strong; → arm; → spiral; → galaxy.

strong encounter
  رویارویی ِ سترگ   
ruyâruyi-ye sotorg

Fr.: rencontre proche   

In a star cluster, a → close encounter that strongly changes a star's velocity.

strong; → encounter.

strong force
  نیروی ِ سترگ   
niru-ye sotorg

Fr.: interaction forte   

The force responsible for holding quarks and gluons together to form protons, neutrons and other particles. It is the strongest of the four fundamental forces. Same as → strong interaction.

strong; → force.

strong gravitational lensing
  لنزش ِ گرانشی ِ سترگ   
lenzeš-e gerâneši-ye sotorg

Fr.: effet de lentille gravitationnelle forte   

A → gravitational lensing phenomenon in which the image distortion is strong enough to be readily recognized, such as in the case of the → Einstein cross or when giant luminous arcs show up in → galaxy clusters (e.g. Abell 2218). Opposite to → weak gravitational lensing.

strong; → gravitational; → lensing.

strong interaction
  اندرژیرش ِ سترگ   
andaržireš-e sotorg

Fr.: interaction forte   

The interaction between quarks that is transmitted by gluons. The characteristic range of the strong interaction is 10-13 cm, and the time scale over which it operates is on the order of 10-23 second. Also called → strong force.

strong; → interaction.

strong lensing
  لنزش ِ سترگ   
lenzeš-e sotorg

Fr.: effet de lentille fort   

A situation where the mass concentration in the central regions of → galaxy clusters exceeds the → critical density required for lensing, resulting in multiple images of background objects.

strong; → lensing.

strontium
  استرونسیوم   
estonsiom (#)

Fr.: strontium   

A metallic chemical element; symbol Sr. Atomic number 38; atomic weight 87.62; melting point 769°C; boiling point 1,384°C; specific gravity 2.6 at 20°C. Strontium is a soft, silver-yellow metal with three allotropic crystalline forms. It is found in nature only in the combined state, as in strontianite. It is used in fireworks, flares, and tracer bullets. The radioactive isotope Strontium-87, the daughter of Rubidium-87, has a half-life of 48.8 x 109 years.

The name derives from Strontian "a town in Scotland." The mineral strontianite is found in mines in Strontian. The element was discovered by the Scottish chemist and physician Thomas Charles Hope in 1792 observing the brilliant red flame color of strontium. It was first isolated by the English chemist Humphry Davy in 1808.

structure
  ساختار   
sâxtâr (#)

Fr.: structure   

The arrangement of parts in an object or organism.

M.E., from L. structura "a fitting together, adjustment, building," from structus, p.p. of struere "to pile, build, assemble," related to strues "heap," from PIE *stere- "to spread, extend, stretch out;" cf. Pers. gostar-, gostardan "to spread;" Av. star- "to spread," starati "spreads;" Skt. star- "to spread out, extend, strew," strnati "spreads;" Gk. stornumi "I spread out," strotos "spread, laid out;" Ger. Strahlung "radiation," from strahlen "to radiate," from Strahl "ray;" from M.H.G. strāle; from O.H.G. strāla "arrow, stripe."

Sâxtâr, from sâxt "made; make, construction, structure; style," past stem of sâxtan, sâzidan "to build, make, fashion; to adapt, adjust, be fit" (Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz-, Manichean Parthian s'c'dn "to prepare, to form;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach") + -âr verbal noun suffix.

structure formation
  دیسش ِ ساختار   
diseš-e sâxtâr

Fr.: formation des structures   

The study of the processes that gave rise to the apparition of matter concentrations, such as → superclusters of galaxies, → galaxy clusters, and galaxies, in a homogeneous → expanding Universe. Cosmic structures are believed to result from → density fluctuations that existed in the → early Universe before radiation and matter decoupled (→ decoupling era or → recombination era). Initial → quantum fluctuations in the → inflaton field were expanded by → inflation. Inflation amplified them up to scales that correspond to those of galaxy clusters and beyond. Generally, a model of structure formation includes three main ingredients: 1) background cosmology, 2) model for fluctuation generation, and 3) types of → dark matter.
See also:
bottom-up structure formation, → hierarchical structure formation, → Silk damping, → top-down structure formation.

structure; → formation.

study
  ۱) پرهانه؛ ۲) پرهاندن   
1) parhâné; 2) parhândan

Fr.: 1) étude; 2) étudier   

1a) Application of the mind to the acquisition of knowledge, as by reading, investigation, or reflection.
1b) The cultivation of a particular branch of learning, science, or art.
1c) Something studied or to be studied.
1d) Research or a detailed examination and analysis of a subject, phenomenon, etc. A written account of such research, examination, or analysis.
2a) To apply oneself to the acquisition of knowledge, as by reading, investigation, or practice.
2b) To think deeply, reflect, or consider.
2c) To take a course of study, as at a college (Dictionary.com).

M.E. studie, from O.Fr. estudie "care, skill, thought; study, school," from L. studium "study, application;" originally "eagerness," from studere "to press forward, be eager for, pursue," from PIE *(s)teu- "to push, stick, beat;" cf. Gk. typtein "to strike," typos "a blow, mold;" Skt. tup- "harm," tundate "pushes, stabs;" Gothic stautan "push."

Parhâné, from Proto-Ir. *pari-huan- "to read thoroughly, to read through," from *pari- "through, throughout; thoroughly" (O.Pers. pariy "around, about;" Av. pairi "around, over") + *huanH- "to call;" cf. Pers. xândan, xvandan "to read, to sing" (Av. xvan- "to sound;" Skt. svana- "sound," svan- "to sound," svanati "it sounds;" O.E. swinn "music, song"); cf. Kurd. xwendin "to study, read;" Lori hané "to read;" Karingâni hoyniyan, Baluci vonag, Awromâni wânây "to read;" Khotanese hâvn- "to speak."

Styx
  استیکس، استوکس   
Styx, Stux

Fr.: Styx   

The fifth confirmed → satellite of → Pluto discovered in 2012 using a set of the → Hubble Space Telescope. Also called Pluto V (P5). It orbits Pluto between → Charon and → Nix at a distance of about 42,000 km. Styx is estimated to have a diameter of between 10 and 30 km, and an → orbital period of 20.2 days.

Named for the Greek mythological river that separates the world of the living from the realm of the dead.

sub-
  زیر-، ایر-   
zir- (#), ir-

Fr.: sub-   

A prefix occurring originally in loanwords from L. but freely attached to elements of any origin and used with the meaning "under, below, beneath."

From L. preposition sub "under" (also "next to, up to, toward"), from PIE base *upo- "from below," hence "turning upward, upward, up, over, beyond;" cf. O.Pers. upā (prep.) "under, with;" Av. upā, upa (prep.; prevb) "toward, with, on, in" (upā.gam- "to arrive at," upāpa- "living in the water," upa.naxturušu "bordering on the night"); Mod.Pers. "with," from abâ; Skt. úpa (adv., prevb., prep.) "toward, with, under, on;" Gk. hypo "under;" Goth. iup, O.N., O.E. upp "up, upward."

Zir- "below, down;" Mid.Pers. azêr "below, under," êr "below, down; low, under," adar "low;" Av. aδara- (adj.), aδairi- (prep.) "below;" cf. Skt. ádhara- "lower;" L. infra (adv., prep.) "below, underneath, beneath," inferus "lower;" O.E. under "under, among"); PIE base *ndher.

sub-arcsecond
  زیر-ثانیه‌ای   
zir-sâniye-yi

Fr.:   

A measure of angle smaller than 1 arcsecond, usually until 0.1 arcsecond.

sub-; → arc second.

sub-arcsecond imaging
  تصویرگری ِ زیر-ثانیه‌ای   
tasvir-gari-ye zir-sâniye-yi

Fr.:   

Imaging in excellent seeing conditions using an adequate detector to obtain stellar images whose profile lies in the sub-arcsecond range.

sub-arcsecond; → imaging.

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