An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1298
separation
  جدایی   
jodâyi (#)

Fr.: séparation   

General: The act or process of separating. The place at which a division or parting occurs.
Astro.: The angular distance between the two components of a visual binary or optical double star.

M.E., from O.Fr. separation, from L. separationem, from separare "to pull apart," from se- "apart" + parare "make ready, prepare."

Jodâyi state noun of jodâ "separate," from Mid.Pers. yut "separate, different;" Av. yuta- "separate, apart."

separation energy
  کاروژ ِ جدایی   
kâruž-e jodâyi

Fr.: énergie de séparation   

The energy required to remove a particle (a proton or a neutron) from a particular atomic nucleus.

separation; → energy.

separator
  جداگر   
jodâgar

Fr.: séparateur   

A person or thing that separates. → decimal point.

separate; → -or.

separatrix
  جداگر   
jodâgar

Fr.: séparatrice   

1) General: Something that divides or separates. Plural: separatrices.
2) Math.: Any mark that separates digits in groups, such as the decimal point placed at the left of a decimal fraction, to separate it from the whole number which it follows.
3) Physics: A bundle of magnetic field lines which creates separate plasma regions.

From L. separatrix "she that separates," → separation; -trix a suffix.

Jodâgar, from jodâ "separate," → separation, + -gar, → -or.

sequence
  پی‌آیه، رشته   
peyâyé, rešté

Fr.: 1) suite, séquence; 2) suite   

1) General: The following of one thing after another; succession; something that follows; connected line of events, ideas, etc.
2) Math.: A set of quantities that are ordered in some way, such as a1, a2, a3, .... A sequence is said to be known if a formula can be given for any particular term using the preceding terms or using its position in the sequence. Special types of sequences are commonly called → progressions. The terms of a sequence, when written as an indicated sum, form a → series.

M.E., from O.Fr. sequence "answering verses," from M.L. sequentia "a following, a succession," from L. sequentem (nominative sequens), pr.p. of sequi "to follow;" PIE base *sekw- "to follow;" cf. Pers. az from; Mid.Pers. hac "from;" Av. hac-, hax- "to follow," hacaiti "follows" (O.Pers. hacā "from;" Av. hacā "from, out of;" Skt. sácā "with"); Skt. sácate "accompanies, follows;" Gk. hepesthai "to follow;" Lith. seku "to follow."

Peyâyé, literally "that follows; a subsequent event," from pey "after; step," related to "foot" (Mid.Pers. pâd, pây, Av. pad-, Skt. pat, Gk. pos, gen. podos, L. pes, gen. pedis, P.Gmc. *fot, E. foot, Ger. Fuss, Fr. pied; PIE *pod-/*ped-) + ây- present stem of âmadan "to come, arrive, become" (Av. ay- "to go, to come," aēiti "goes;" O.Pers. aitiy "goes;" Skt. e- "to come near," eti "arrival;" L. ire "to go;" Goth. iddja "went," Lith. eiti "to go;" Rus. idti "to go") + nuance suffix.
Rešté "thread, line, rope, row," p.p. of reštan, risidan "to spin;" Mid.Pers. rištag "rope, string, thread;" Av. uruuaēs- "to turn around," uruuaēsa- "vortex in water;" cf. Skt. vréśī- "an appellation of waters;" Gk. rhiknos "crooked;" Lith. rišti "tie, bind;" O.H.G. rīho "knee-bend."

sequential
  پی‌آیه‌ای   
peyâye-yi

Fr.: séquentiel   

Following in order of time or place.

Adj. from → sequence.

sequential star formation
  دیسش ِ پی‌آیه‌ای ِ ستاره   
diseš-e peyâye-yi-e setâré

Fr.: formation séquentielle d'étoiles   

The formation of second-generation stars in a → molecular cloud, as triggered by the presence of → massive stars. The observation that some nearby → OB associations contain distinct, spatially separate subgroups of → OB stars in a sequence of monotonically changing age led Blaauw (1964, ARA&A 2, 213) to suggest that star formation in fact occurs in sequential bursts during the lifetimes of the corresponding molecular clouds. The first quantitative model of this mechanism was presented by Elmegreen and Lada (1977, ApJ 214, 725), who showed that the powerful ultraviolet photons of the massive star create an → ionization front which advances in the molecular cloud and is preceded by a → shock front. The compressed neutral gas lying between the ionization and shock fronts is gravitationally unstable and collapses in time-scales of a few million years to form a new generation of massive stars. The propagation of successive births of OB groups would produce a chain of associations presenting a gradient of age. Elmegreen and Lada estimated the propagation velocity to be 5 km s-1. For a region with a length larger than 100 pc, this would imply an age difference of the order of 20 million years between the extremities. See also → stimulated star formation, → triggered star formation; → collect and collapse model.

sequential; → star formation.

series
  سری   
seri (#)

Fr.: série   

1) Math.: A sequence of numbers or mathematical expressions such as the n-th term may be written down in general form, and any particular term (say, the r-th) may be obtained by substituting r for n; e.g. xn is the general term of the series 1, x, x2, x3, ..., xn.
2) Electricity: An arrangement of the components, as resistors, connected along a single path, so the same current flows through all of the components. Compare → parallel.
3) → spectral series; → Lyman-alpha series.

From L. series "row, chain, series," from serere "to join, link, bind together," from PIE base *ser- "to line up, join."

Seri, loan from Fr.

Serpens
  مار   
Mâr (#)

Fr.: Serpent   

The Serpent. An inconspicuous, irregular constellation situated on both sides of → Ophiuchus. The constellation is divided into two unequal parts, originally called Serpens Caput "Serpent's Head" at 15h 30m right ascension, 15° north declination, and Serpens Cauda "Serpent's Body" at 18h 30m right ascension, 0° declination. The brightest star, Alpha Serpentis, is of second magnitude. Abbreviation: Ser; Genitive: Serpentis.

From L. serpens "snake," from pr.p. of serpere "to creep," from PIE *serp- "to crawl;" cf. Skt. sarp- "to creep, crawl," sárpati "creeps," sarpá- "serpent;" Gk. herpein "to creep," herpeton "serpent;" Alb. garper "serpent."

Mâr "snake, serpent;" Mid.Pers. mâr "snake;" Av. mairya- "snake, serpent."

Sersic profile
  فراپال ِ سرسیک   
farâpâl-e Sérsic

Fr.: profile de Sérsic   

A mathematical function that describes how the → intensity  I of a → galaxy varies with distance R from its center. It is given by: (dln I/dln R) = -(b/n)(R/Re)1/n. The constant b is chosen such that Re is the → effective radius; n is the Sérsic index. The Sérsic profile is a generalization of → de Vaucouleurs law. Setting n = 4 gives the de Vaucouleurs profile.

J. L. Sérsic, 1963, Boletin de la Asociacion Argentina de Astronomia, Vol. 6, p.41; → profile.

serve
  زاوریدن   
zâvaridan

Fr.: servir   

To render assistance; be of use. To have definite use.

Verbal form of service, → server.

server
  زاور   
zâvar

Fr.: serveur   

General: Something that serves or is used in serving.
Computers: A computer software application that carries out some task on behalf of users. When users connect to a server, they can access programs, files, and other information from the server. Common servers are Web, mail, and database servers. A single computer can have several different server programs running on it.

Server, agent noun from serve, from M.E. serven, from O.Fr. servir "to serve," from L. servire "to serve," originally "be a slave," related to servus "slave;" cognate with Av. har- "to guard, watch," harətar- "guardian," hāra- "caring for;" Mid./Mod.Pers. zinhâr "protection, security; beware! mind!"

Zâvar "attendant, servant" (Dehxodâ), zâvari "attendance, service" (Dehxodâ), maybe related to Skt. sev- "to attend upon, serve," sevā- "service, attendance, worship," sevati "serves, attends," sevaka- "attendant, servant, follower."

service
  زاوری، زاورش   
zâvari, zâvareš (#)

Fr.: service   

1) A helpful act by somebody for somebody else as a job, duty, or favor.
2) A system or organization supplying some public demand, e.g. transportation, telephone, health.
3) A facility providing maintenance and repair.

M.E., from O.Fr. servise, from L. servitium "slavery, servitude," from servus "slave," servire "to serve," originally "be a slave;" cognate with Av. har- "to guard, watch," → server.

Zâvari "service" (Dehxodâ) → server.

service observing
  نپاهش با زاوَری، ~ ِ زاورشی   
nepâheš bâ zâvari, ~ zâvareši

Fr.: observation de service   

Observation approved by the selection committee of an observatory which is carried out by the staff astronomers of the observatory.

service; → observation.

set
  ۱) هنگرد؛ ۲) فرو‌شدن   
1) hangard; 2) forušodan (#)

Fr.: 1) ensemble; 2) se coucher   

1) Math.: A finite or infinite collection of objects in which order has no significance. Members of a set are often referred to as elements and the notation a ∈ A is used to denote that a is an element of a set A. The study of sets and their properties is the object of set theory.
2) To pass below the horizon. → moonset; → sunset.

1) M.E. sette, from O.Fr. sette "sequence," variant of secte, from M.L. secta "religious group, sect," from L. secta "manner, following, school of thought," literally "something to follow, pathway, course of conduct, school of thought," from sectari "to pursue, accompany," "a way, road," from sequi "to follow," → sequence.
2) M.E. setten, O.E. settan "cause to sit, put in some place, fix firmly;" cf. O.N. setja, O.Fris. setta, Du. zetten, Ger. setzen.

1) Hangard, from Mid.Pers. hangart "whole, complete," hangartik "complete," hangartênitan "to collect, assemble," from *hamkard- literally "created, cut together," from han- variant of ham- "together," cognate with L.L. insimul "at the same time," from in- intensive prefix + simul "together, at the same time" (cf. Gk. homos "same," Mod./Mid.Pers. ham- "together, with," O.Pers./Av. ham-, Skt. sam-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same," Skt. sama-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-). (→ com-), + gard, variant of kard "created, cut," Mid.Pers. kirrēnītan, kirrēn- "to cut, create," cf. fragard "section, chapter," Av. karət- "to cut," kərəntaiti "cuts, breaks," with fraca- "to create, bring forth," karəta- "knife, dagger" (Mid.Pers. kârt "knife;" Mod.Pers. kârd "knife"), Skt. kart- "to cut, split, break," krti- "sword, knife;" PIE base *(s)kert- "to cut;" Hitt. kartae- "to cut;" Arm. kherthem "to skin;" L. cortex "bark of a tree," corium "skin, leather;" O.H.G. scrinden "to split;" Lith. kertu "to fell, cut down."
2) Forušodan, literally "to descend, go down," from foru- "down, downward; below; beneath" (Mid.Pers. frôt "down, downward;" O.Pers. fravata "forward, downward;" cf. Skt. pravát- "a sloping path, the slope of a mountain") + šodan "to go, to pass; to become, to be, to be doing" (Mid.Pers. šudan, šaw- "to go;" Av. š(ii)auu-, šiyav- "to move, go," šiyavati "goes," šyaoθna- "activity; action; doing, working;" O.Pers. šiyav- "to go forth, set," ašiyavam "I set forth;" cf. Skt. cyu- "to move to and fro, shake about; to stir," cyávate "stirs himself, goes;" Gk. kinein "to move;" Goth. haitan "call, be called;" O.E. hatan "command, call;" PIE base *kei- "to move to and fro").

set theory
  نگره‌ی ِ هنگرد   
negare-ye hangard

Fr.: théorie des ensembles   

The branch of mathematics that studies sets. Set theory is closely associated with the branch of mathematics known as logic. It was initiated by the German mathematician Georg Cantor (1845-1918).

set; → theory.

setting
  فروشد   
forušod (#)

Fr.: coucher   

The act of setting; the appearance of a → celestial body below the → horizon. Opposite of → rising.

set; → -ing.

setting circles
  دایره‌های ِ آماج‌گیری   
dâyerehâ-ye âmaj-giri

Fr.: cercles de pointage   

Two graduated disks attached to the right ascension and declination axis of an equatorial mount used in amateur astronomy that help an observer find astronomical objects in the sky by their equatorial coordinates.

M.E.; O.E. settan "cause to sit, put in some place, fix firmly" (cf. O.N. setja, O.Fris. setta, Du. zetten, Ger. setzen); → circle.

Dâyeré, → circle; âmâj-giri "taking aim," from âmâj "aim, target," → point + giri "taking" (vebal noun of gereftan "to take, seize, hold;" Mid.Pers. griftan, gir- "to take, hold, restrain;" O.Pers./Av. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha- "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE *ghrebh- "to seize").

settle
  ۱) نیاشاندن؛ ۲) نیاشیدن   
1) niyâšândan; 2) niyâšidan

Fr.: 1) stabiliser, régler, mettre en ordre, calmer; 2) se dépose, retomber, s'apaiser, s'installer   

1) (tr.) To put in order; arrange in a desired state or condition.
2) (intr.) To come to rest or a halt. To become fixed in a particular place, direction, etc. (Dictionary.com).

M.E. set(t)len, O.E. setlan "to place," derivative of setl "a seat; stall; position, abode;" related to sittan "to sit," from Proto-Germanic *setla- (cognates: Middle Low German, Middle Dutch setel, Dutch zetel, German Sessel, Gothic sitls), from PIE *sedla- (cognates: L. sella "seat, chair," O.C.S. sedlo "saddle," O.E. sadol "saddle"), from root *sed-.

Niyâšidan, from Yidghda niâst- , Munji niôst- "to sit down;" Nâini âš-/âšis- "to become seated;" Baluci ništ, related to nešastan "to sit down," → sit (see also → reside); ultimately from Proto-Ir. *had- "to sit, be setaed."

settled disk
  گرده‌ی ِ نیاشیده   
gerde-ye niyâšidé

Fr.: disque stabilisé   

A → galactic disk that has undergone → disk settling.

settle; → disk.

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