An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

   Homepage   
   


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

<< < -sc Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sco sec sec sec sei sel sem sep sex Sha she sho sid sig sim sin Sir sky slo sno sod sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo SS sta sta sta sta ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swi syn Syr > >>

Number of Results: 1290
synchrotron
  سنکروترون   
sankrotron

Fr.: synchrotron   

A type of → accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles (generally protons) in a circular path. Unlike → cyclotrons, in which particles follow a spiral path, synchrotrons consist of a single ring-shaped tube through which the particles loop numerous times, guided by precisely synchronized magnetic fields and accelerated at various points in the loop by electric field bursts. See also → synchrotron frequency, → synchrotron radiation.

From synchro- a combining form representing synchronized or synchronous in compound words, from L. synchronus "simultaneous," from Gk. synchronos "happening at the same time," from → syn- "together" + khronos "time" + → -tron.

Sankrotron, from Fr., as above.

synchrotron frequency
  بسامد ِ سینکروترون   
basâmad-e sinkrvtrvn

Fr.: fréquence synchrotron   

The revolution frequency of a → relativistic particle of charge q and mass m in the → uniform magnetic field B of a synchrotron. It is expressed by: fsyn = qB/2πγm, where γ is the → Lorentz factor. This frequency is lower than → cyclotron frequency for a → non-relativistic case.

synchrotron; → frequency.

synchrotron radiation
  تابش ِ سنکروترون   
tâbeš-e sankrotron

Fr.: rayonnement synchrotron   

The electromagnetic radiation emitted by high-energy particles that are moving in magnetic fields, as in a synchrotron particle accelerator. The acceleration of the moving charges causes the particles to emit radiation. Radio galaxies and supernova remnants are intense sources of synchrotron radiation. Characteristics of synchrotron radiation are its high degree of polarization and nonthermal spectrum.

synchrotron; → radiation.

syndyne
  هم‌توان   
hamtavân

Fr.: syndyne   

Of a comet, a curve of points calculated assuming dust grains are emitted continuously at successive instants with a constant value of the radiation pressure to gravitational attraction; also called syndyname. → synchrone.

From → syn- + dyne, → dynamics.

synergy
  هم‌کاروژی   
hamkâruži

Fr.: synergie   

The working together or simultaneous action of separate elements or agencies when the result is greater than the sum of the individual effects or capabilities.

From Mod.L. synergia, from Gk. synergia "joint work, help," from synergos "working together," related to synergein "to work together, help another," from → syn- "together" + → ergon, → work, → erg.

Hamkâruži, from ham- "together," → syn-, + kâruž, → energy, + -i noun suffix.

synodic
  هماگمی   
hamâgami

Fr.: synodique   

Of or pertaining to the → conjunction of two or more heavenly bodies, especially the interval between two successive conjunctions of a planet or the Moon with the Sun.

From L.L. synodicus, from Gk. synodikos, from synodos "assembly, meeting," from → syn- "together" + hodos "a going, a way."

Hamâgam, literally "coming together," from ham-, → syn- "together," + -â- epenthetic vowel + gam from O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go," Av. gam- "to come; to go," jamaiti "goes," Mod.Pers. âmadan "to come," gâm "step, pace;" cf. Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step;" L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A käm- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come;" E. come; PIE stem *gwem- "to go, come."

synodic month
  ماه ِ هماگمی   
mâh-e hamâgami

Fr.: mois synodique   

The interval of 29.530 588 days (29d 12h 44m 2.80s), on average, between two successive → new Moons. Same as → lunation.

synodic; → month.

synodic period
  دوره‌ی ِ هماگمی   
dowre-ye hamâgami

Fr.: période synodique   

1) For planets, the mean interval of time between successive → conjunctions of two planets, as observed from the Earth. For → inferior planets (Venus and Mercury):
1/P = 1/E + 1/S.
For → superior planets (Mars, Jupiter, etc.):
1/P = 1/E - 1/S,
where P = → sidereal period of a planet, E = synodic period of the Earth, and S = synodic period of the planet. For example, the synodic period of Jupiter, calculated from the sidereal period of Jupiter (P), 11.856 years, via 1/11.856 = 1/1.0 - 1/S, is 398.9 days.
2) For satellites, the mean interval between successive conjunctions of a satellite with the Sun, as observed from the satellite's → primary.

synodic; → period.

synonym
  همچم   
hamcem

Fr.: synonyme   

Grammar: A word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another in the language. Opposite of → antonym.

From L. synonymum, from Gk. synonymon "word having the same sense as another," from synonymos "having the same name as, synonymous," from → syn- "together, same" + onyma, → name.

Hamcem, from ham-, → syn-, + cem, → meaning.

synopsis
  هنوین   
hanvin

Fr.: synopsis, résumé, précis   

A brief and condensed summary giving the major points and a general view of a topic.

L.L. synopsis "a synopsis," from Gk. synopsis "general view," from a stem of synoran "to see altogether, all at once," from → syn- "together" + horan "to see, view."

Hanvin, from han- variant of ham-, → syn- + vin variant bin present stem of didan "to see," → phenomenon.

synoptic
  هنوینی   
hanvini

Fr.: synoptique   

In general, pertaining to or affording an overall view.

M.L. synopticus, from Gk. synoptikos, from synop-, → synopsis, + -tikos.

synoptic map
  نقشه‌ی ِ هنوینی   
naqše-ye hanvini

Fr.: carte synoptique   

1) Sun: A map that displays positions of certain events (e.g., → sunspots, → faculae, → filaments, etc.) observed during one solar rotation.
2) Meteorology: The use of data obtained simultaneously over a wide area for the purpose of presenting a comprehensive and nearly instantaneous picture of the state of the atmosphere.

synoptic; → map.

syntactics
  امراژیک   
amrâžik

Fr.: syntactique   

The study of the grammatical relationships among signs, independently of their meaning (→ semantics. See also → syntax.

syntax; → -ics.

syntax
  امراژ   
amrâž

Fr.: syntaxe   

1) Linguistics: The branch of → semiotics dealing with the ways in which words are arranged to show connections within the sentence.
2) Logic: The study of how signs are combined to form constituents regardless of any interpretation or meaning given to them.
3) Informatics: The general set of rules and structural patterns governing the order of words and symbols for issuing commands and writing codes in a programming language.

From Fr. syntaxe, from L.L. syntaxis, from Gk. syntaxis "a putting together or in order, arrangement," from syntassein "to put in order," from → syn- "together" + tassein "to arrange;" PIE base *tāg- "to put in order."

Amrâž, from am-, variant of ham-, → syn-, + râž from Av. rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," rasman- "the lines or files of the army," razan "rule, order;" cf. raj, raž, rak, râk, rezg (Lori), radé, râdé "line, rule, row," rasté, râsté "row, a market with regular ranges of shops;" ris, risé "straight," râst "right, true; just, upright, straight," → system.

synthesis
  هندایش   
handâyeš

Fr.: synthèse   

The combining of the constituent elements of separate materials or abstract entities into a single or unified entity; opposite of → analysis. → aperture synthesis; → nucleosynthesis.
Chemistry: The forming or building of a more complex substance or compound from elements or simpler compounds.
Philo.: The combination or reconciliation of opposed notions.

From L. synthesis "collection, set," from Gk. synthesis "composition," from syntithenai "put together, combine," from → syn- "together" + tithenai "to put, place," from PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do," cf. Pers. dâdan "to give," as below.

Handâyeš, from han-, variant ham- "together," → syn- + O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, put," dadāiti "he gives;" Mid.Pers./Mod.Pers. dâdan "to give, put" (cf. Skt. dadáti "he gives;" Gk. tithenai "to place, put, set," didomi "I give;" L. dare "to give, offer;" Rus. delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do;" PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do") + -y- epenthetic vowel + -eš verbal noun suffix, → synthesize.

synthesize
  هنداییدن   
handâyidan

Fr.: synthétiser   

To form a material or abstract entity by combining parts or elements; opposite of → analysis.
Chemistry: To combine (constituent elements) into a single or unified entity.

From → synthesis + → -ize.

Handâyidan, verbal form of handâyeš, → synthesis.

synthesizer
  هنداگر   
handâgar

Fr.: synthétiseur   

A person or thing that synthesizes.

Agent noun from → synthesize.

synthetic
  هندایی، هندایشی   
handâyi, handâyeši

Fr.: synthétique   

1) Of, pertaining to, proceeding by, or involving synthesis; opposed to analytic.
2) Noting or pertaining to compounds formed through a chemical process by human agency, as opposed to those of natural origin.

Adj. from synthesize.

synthetic division
  بخش ِ هندایشی   
baxš-e handâyeši

Fr.: division synthétique   

A method of dividing a polynomial in the special case of dividing by a linear factor. Synthetic division allows one to do long division problems much quicker. It is related to the → Ruffini-Horner method.

synthetic; → division.

synthetic language
  زبان ِ هندایشی   
zabân-e handâyeši

Fr.: langue synthétique   

A language in which the phrase meaning is determined by case endings of individual words and not by the relation between the words. Old English was a highly synthetic language. Compare with → analytic language.

synthetic; → language.

<< < -sc Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sco sec sec sec sei sel sem sep sex Sha she sho sid sig sim sin Sir sky slo sno sod sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo SS sta sta sta sta ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swi syn Syr > >>