An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1316
swan
  قو   
qu (#)

Fr.: cygne   

A large, usually white bird with a long neck that lives on rivers and lakes (family Anatidae, especially genus Cygnus).

M.E., from O.E. swan; cf. O.S. swan, O.N. svanr, M.Du. swane, Du. zwaan, O.H.G. swan, Ger. Schwan, probably literally "the singing bird," from PIE base *swon-/*swen- "to sing, make sound."

Qu "swan," maybe an onomatopoetic word from the sound of swan's call; cf. Russ. ky-ky "cry of a swan."

Swan band
  باند ِ سوان   
bând-e Swan

Fr.: bande de Swan   

One of the three prominent bands in the spectra of comets and carbon stars caused by diatomic carbon (C2).

Named after the Scottish physicist William Swan (1818-1894) who first studied the spectral analysis of radical carbon C2 in 1856; → band.

Swan Nebula
  میغ ِ قو   
miq-e qu

Fr.: nébuleuse du Cygne   

Same as → Omega Nebula.

swan; → nebula.

swarm
  غنگ   
qang

Fr.: essaim   

A great number of things especially in motion. → meteorite swarm.

ME; OE swearm; cf. O.S., M.L.G. swarm, Swed. svärm, M.Du. swerm, O.H.G. swarm, Ger. Schwarm "swarm;" O.N. svarmr "tumult."

Qang in Lârestâni "swarm of bees, flies, or the like," Lori qem (qem zaye) "swarm of bees, ants, and the like."

sweep-up radius
  شعاع ِ روبش   
šo'â'-e rubeš

Fr.: rayon de balayage   

The → radius of a → supernova remnant (SNR) when, at the end of the → free expansion phase, the mass of the swept-up → shell equals that of the ejected gas from the → supernova explosion. It is given by RSW = (3Me / 4πρ0)(1/3), where Me is the ejected mass and ρ0 is the initial density of the → interstellar medium.

Sweep, from M.E. swepen, from O.E. swapan "to sweep;" cognate with Ger. schweifen; → up; → radius.

Šo'â', → radius; rubeš, noun from ruftan, rubidan "to sweep," → scan.

switch
  ۱) دگربان؛ ۲) دگربانیدن   
1) degarbân; 2) degarbânidan

Fr.: 1) interrupteur; 2) interrompre   

1a) A shift from one to another.
1b) A device used to break or open an electric circuit or to divert current from one conductor to another.
2) To shift or exchange; To connect, disconnect, or redirect.

Switch "slender riding whip, flexible stick," probably from a Flemish or Low German word akin to Hanoverian swutsche, a variant of Low Ger. zwukse "long thin stick, switch."

Degarbân, from degar "other, another" (Mid.Pers. dit, ditikar "the other, the second;" O.Pers. duvitiya- "second," Av. daibitya-, bitya- "second;" Skt. dvitiya- "second," PIE *duitiio- "second") + -bân a suffix denoting "keeper, guard," sometimes forming agent nouns or indicating relation, → host.

switching
  دگربانی   
degarbâni

Fr.: interrompre   

The act of changing one thing or position for another.

Verbal noun of → switch (v.).

sword
  شمشیر   
šamšir (#)

Fr.: épée   

1) A weapon having various forms but consisting typically of a long, straight or slightly curved blade, sharp-edged on one or both sides, with one end pointed and the other fixed in a hilt or handle (Dictionary.com).
2) → Orion's Sword.

M.E.; O.E. sweord; cognate with Du. zwaard, Ger. Schwert, Sw. svärd.

Šamšir, Mid.Pers. šamšêr / šamšyl, Parthian safsêr; cf. Gk. sampsera denoting a "foreign sword." The E. scimitar derives ultimately from šamšir through M.Fr. cimeterre or directly from It. scimitarra, possibly from an unknown Ottoman Turkish word, borrowed from Pers.

syllogism
  باهمشماری   
bâhamšomâri (#)

Fr.: syllogisme   

A kind of → deductive reasoning whereby from two initial → propositions (two → premises) a third related proposition (→ conclusion) is derived. The typical form of a → categorical syllogism is "A is B;" "C is A;" "Therefore, C is B." For example, "All humans are mortal." "John is human." "Therefore, John is mortal." "Mortal" (B) is called the → major term; it occurs in the first premise and is the → predicate of the conclusion. "John" (C), the subject of the conclusion, is called the → minor term. "Human," which is common to both premises and is excluded from the conclusion, is called the → middle term. See also → Aristotelian forms. Syllogism is purely formal. It does not enrich knowledge, but gives a new presentation to what is already known. It is also possible to have a logically valid syllogism based on → absurd premises. For example, "All cats are mammals." "All cats are animals." "Therefore, all animals are mammals." Syllogism, representing the earliest branch of → formal logic, was developed in its original form by Aristotle in his Organon (Prior Analytics) about 350 BC.
See also: → bivalent logic, → polyvalent logic, → symbolic logic, → propositional logic, → first-order logic, → predicate logic, → syllogistic; → fuzzy logic.

M.E. silogisme, from O.Fr. silogisme, from L. syllogismus, from Gk. syllogismos "a syllogism," originally "inference, conclusion; computation, calculation," from syllogizesthai "bring together before the mind, compute, conclude," from assimilated form of → syn- "together" + logizesthai "to reason, to count," from logos "a reckoning, reason," → logic.

Bâhamšomârik, literally "reckoning together," from bâham "together," from "with," → hypo-, + ham, → syn-, + šomâr present stem of šomârdan "to reckon, calculate, enumerate, account for," → count, + suffix -i.

syllogistic
  باهمشماریک   
bâhamšomârik (#)

Fr.: syllogistique   

1a) Of or pertaining to a → syllogism.
1b) Like or consisting of syllogisms.
2a) The part of logic that deals with syllogisms.
2b) Syllogistic reasoning (Dictionary.com).

syllogism; → -ic.

symbiotic
  همزی   
hamzi

Fr.: symbiotique   

Of or pertaining yo symbiosis in biology, denoting a close, prolonged association between two or more different organisms of different species that may be, but does not necessarily, of mutual benefit. → symbiotic star.

From Mod.L., from Gk. symbiosis "a living together," from symbioun "live together," from symbios "(one) living together (with another), partner," from → syn- "together" + bios "life," → bio-.

Hamzi "living together," from ham- "together," → syn-, + zi- present stem of zistan "to live," → bio-.

symbiotic B[e] star (symB[e])
     
setâre-ye B[e]-ye hamzi

Fr.: étoile B[e] symbiotique   

A → B[e] star whose spectrum shows the presence of a cool component characterized mainly by → TiO bands.

symbiotic; → B[e] star.

symbiotic star
  ستاره‌ی ِ همزی   
setâre-ye hamzi

Fr.: étoile symbiotique   

A stellar object whose optical spectrum displays lines characteristic of gases of two very different temperatures, typically of an M star (3500 K) and a B star (20 000 K) superimposed. A symbiotic star is in fact a close binary system.

symbiotic; → star.

symbol
  نماد   
namâd (#)

Fr.: symbole   

1) Something that stands for or represents something else, especially an object representing an abstraction.
2) A conventional sign or character that represents something in a specific context, e.g. an operation or quantity in mathematics or music.

M.E., from L.L. symbolum "creed, token, mark," from Gk. symbolon "sign, mark," from → syn- "together" + stem of ballein "to throw."

Namâd variant of namud, nemud past stem of nemudan "to show;" Mid.Pers. nimūdan, nimây- "to show," from O.Pers./Av. ni- "down; into," → ni- (PIE), + māy- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum; PIE base *me- "to measure."

symbolic
  نمادین   
nemâdin (#)

Fr.: symbolique   

Of or relating to a symbol or symbols; serving as a symbol.

symbol; → -ic.

symbolic logic
  گوییک ِ نمادین   
guyik-e nemâdin

Fr.: logique symbolique   

A modern development of → formal logic based on a system of → symbols and → axiomatics in accordance with precise rules. It uses a formalized → artificial language to avoid the ambiguities and logical inadequacies of → natural languages. Symbolic logics are → polyvalent when they admit → truth values other than → true and → false.

symbolic; → logic.

symmetric relation
  بازانش ِ همامون   
bâzâneš-e hamâmun

Fr.: relation symétrique   

A relation between two quantities such that the first is to the second as the second is to the first. In symbols: a R b = b R a. For example, multiplication is an operation with a symmetric relation between the factors: 5 x 3 = 3 x 5.

symmetric; → relation.

symmetric tensor
  تانسور ِ همامون   
tânsor-e hamâmun

Fr.: tenseur symétrique   

A tensor that is → invariant under any → permutation of its indices (→ index). In other words, a tensor that equals its → transpose. For example, a second-order → covariant tensor Ajk if its components satisfy the equality: Ajk = Akj.

symmetric; → tensor.

symmetric, symmetrical
  همامون   
hamâmun

Fr.: symétrique   

Characterized by or exhibiting → symmetry.

Adj. of → symmetry.

symmetry
  همامونی   
hamâmuni

Fr.: symétrie   

1) A quality of a geometric figure that has exactly similar parts with respect to a point, a line, or a plane of its own.
2) A geometric transformation that does not alter neither the shape nor the size of a figure.
3) A property of a mathematical function whose value does not change when its variables are interchanged.
4) Of physical phenomena, the property of remaining invariant under certain changes (as of rotation, reflection, inversion in space, the sign of the electric charge, parity, or the direction of time flow). See also → Noether's theorem.
See also:
asymmetry, → axial symmetry, → axisymmetry, → baryon asymmetry, → charge-parity symmetry, → dissymmetry, → gauge symmetry, → parity symmetry, → spherical symmetry, → spontaneous symmetry breaking, → supersymmetry, → symmetry group, → T-symmetry.

From L. symmetria, from Gk. symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement," from symmetros "having a common measure, even, proportionate," from → syn- "together" + metron "meter;" PIE base *me- "to measure;" cf. O.Pers., Av. mā- "to measure;" Skt. mati "measures;" L. metri "to measure."

Hamâmun from ham-, → syn- "together," + -â- epenthetic vowel + mun, variant mân "measure," as in Pers. terms pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," peymâné "a measure; a cup, bowl," from O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum; PIE base *me- "to measure."

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