An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1286
stratification
  چینه‌بندی   
cine-bandi

Fr.: stratification   

A layered structure of sedimentary rocks in which the individual layers can be traced a considerable distance. The layers can be caused by many differences which include materials of different composition, color, grain size or orientation.

Strati-, from → stratum + -fication from L. -ficare "to do, make."

Ciné, → stratum + bandi, from bastan "to bind, shut; to contract, get, acquire; to coagulate," (Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind, → band).

stratigraphy
  چینه‌شناسی، چینه‌نگاری   
cine-šenâsi (#), cine-negâri

Fr.: stratigraphie   

The study of → sedimentary rock units, including their geographic extent, age, classification, characteristics and formation.

stratum; → -graphy; → -logy.

stratosphere
  چینه‌سپهر   
cine-sepehr

Fr.: stratosphère   

The second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the → troposphere and below the → mesosphere, extending from about 20 km to 90 km above the Earth. It is characterized by little vertical increase in temperature.

From Fr. stratosphère, literally "sphere of layers," coined by Fr. meteorologist Léon-Philippe Teisserenc de Bort (1855-1913) from L. stratus "a spreading out" (from p.p. stem of sternere "to spread out") + -sphère (→ sphere), as in atmosphère.

Cine-sepehr, from Ciné, → stratum, + sepehr, → sphere.

stratospheric
  چینه‌سپهری   
cine-sepehri

Fr.: stratosphérique   

Of, relating to, or characteristic of the stratosphere.

stratosphere; → -ic.

Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)
  نپاهشگاه ِ چینه‌سپهری برای اخترشناسی ِ فروسرخ   
Nepâhešgâh-e Cine-sepehri barây axtaršenâsi-ye forusorx

Fr.: Observatoire stratosphérique pour l'astronomie infrarouge   

A partnership of NASA and the German Aerospace Center, consisting of an extensively modified Boeing 747SP aircraft carrying a reflecting telescope with an effective diameter of 2.5 m. NASA Ames Research Center manages SOFIA's science and mission operations in cooperation with the Universities Space Research Association and the German SOFIA Institute. SOFIA is the largest airborne observatory in the world, with a planned 20-year lifetime.

stratospheric; → observatory; → infrared; → astronomy.

stratum
  چینه   
ciné (#)

Fr.: couche   

Geophysics: A layer of the atmosphere or the sea, regarded as lying between horizontal planes.
Geology: A single bed of → sedimentary rock, generally consisting of one kind of matter representing continuous deposition.

From L. stratum "thing spread out, pavement," from neuter p.p. of sternere "to spread out, lay down, stretch out," from PIE base *ster- "to spread, extend, stretch out;" cf. Pers. gostar-, gostardan "to spread;" Av. star- "to spread," starati "spreads;" Skt. star- "to spread out, extend, strew," strnati "spreads;" Gk. stornumi "I spread out," strotos "spread, laid out;" Ger. Strahlung "radiation," from strahlen "to radiate," from Strahl "ray;" from M.H.G. strāle; from O.H.G. strāla "arrow,stripe."

Ciné "layer," from cin present stem of cidan "to collect, gather;" Mid.Pers. cyn- "to gather, collect," Parthian Mid.Pers. (+*ni-) ncyn- "to pile up, heap up together," nycnyšn "stack;" Av. ci- (caē-, caii-) "to heap up, gather;" cf. Skt. ci- "to gather, heap up," cinoti "gathers."

streak
  خش   
xaš

Fr.: raie, bande, veine   

1) A long, narrow mark, smear, band of color, or the like.
2) Mineralogy: The color that minerals leave behind when scratched against a black or white porcelain plate. It is used to identify the mineral.

From M.E. streke, from O.E. strica; akin to O.H.G. strich "line."

Xaš "streak, scratch, stria," maybe from xarâš-, xarâšidan "to scratch;" Proto-Ir. *xrāš- "to scratch" (Cheung 2007), or a variant of xatt, → line.

streak line
  خط ِ خش   
xatt-e xaš

Fr.: ligne d'émission   

In → fluid mechanics, the curve defined by the positions of all particles which have passed through a given point. In laboratory experiments, streak line may be displayed by the stream of color resulting from injection of a dye into the flow.

streak; → line.

stream
  ۱) رابه؛ ۲) رابیدن   
1) râbé; 2) râbidan

Fr.: 1) courant, cours d'eau; 2) couler   

1) (n.) A general term for any river, brook, rivulet or course of running water.
A steady flow of a fluid, small solid particles, or radiant energy. → Magellanic stream. Related concepts: → current (jarayân = جریان); → flow (tacân = تچان).
2) (v.) To move or proceed continuously like a flowing stream.

O.E. stream "a course of water;" cf. O.S. strom, O.N. straumr, Dan. strøm, Swed. ström, Norw. straum, Du. stroom, O.H.G. stroum, Ger. Strom "current, river," from PIE base *sreu- "to flow;" cf. Pers. rud, from Mid.Pers. rôd "river;" O.Pers. rautah- "river;" Skt. srotas- "river," sru- "to flow;" Pali sota- "stream, flood;" Gk. rhoos "a stream, a flowing," from rhein "to flow."

1) Râbé, from dialectal Gilaki râbé "flowing of water or liquid," Semnâni rové "a stream of water flowing beyond control," Pers. colloquial (in râ gereftan "to overflow, flow beyond control"); probably from PIE base *rei- "to flow;" cf. Skt. ray- "to flow, run," raya- "stream;" L. rivus "stream, brook;" O.C.S. reka "river;" M.Ir. rian "river, way;" Goth. rinnan "run, flow," rinno "brook;" M.L.G. ride "brook;" O.E. riþ "stream."
2) Râbidan infinitive of râbé.

stream current
  جریان ِ رابه   
jarayân-e râbé

Fr.: veine de courant   

Hydrology: A steady current in a stream or river.
Oceanography: A deep, narrow, well-defined fast-moving ocean current.

stream; → current.

stream filament
  رشته‌ی ِ رابه   
rešte-ye râbé

Fr.:   

A → stream tube with a small cross section so that the variation of velocity over it is negligible.

stream; → filament.

stream tube
  لوله‌ی ِ رابه   
lule-ye râbé

Fr.: tube de courant   

A pipe-shaped volume obtained by drawing → streamlines through every point of a closed curve in the fluid. Since the stream tube is bounded on all sides by streamlines and since, by definition, there can be no velocity across a streamline, no fluid may enter or leave a stream tube, except through its ends. See also → stream filament.

stream; → tube.

streamer
  درفشک   
derafšak

Fr.: jet, grand jet   

Any long, narrow piece or thing, as a spray of a plant or a strip of cloud; something that streams. → coronal streamer; → helmet streamer

M.E. stremer, from → stream + -er.

Derafšak, from derafš "flag, banner;" Mid.Pers. drafš "banner;" Av. drafša- "banner;" cf. Skt. drapsá- "flag, banner; drop, spark;" also Fr. drapeau; It. drappo "flag;" Lith. drapana "dress."

streaming
  رابش   
râbeš

Fr.: 2) lecture en transit   

1) Fluid mechanics: Any process or instance of flowing.
2) Computer science: A condition of a terminal or modem that has locked into a constant carrier signal, thus preventing the normal flow of data.

Verbal noun of → stream.

streamline
  راب‌خط   
râbxatt

Fr.: ligne de courant   

An imaginary continuous curve drawn in a fluid so that the tangent at every point of it at any instant of time coincides with the direction of the motion of the fluid at that point. The component of velocity at right angles to the streamline is always zero. If a number of streamlines is considered at a particular instant, the pattern they form gives a good indication of the flow then occurring. Same as → flow line. See also → path line, → stream tube.

stream; → line.

Strehl ratio
  وابر ِ اشترل   
vâbr-e Strehl

Fr.: rapport Strehl   

The ratio of the peak intensity of the central core of the image of a point source to the corresponding intensity contained in an image obtained in the absence of aberration. An optically perfect system has a Strehl ratio of unity. The ratio may be computed by integrating the area under a → modulation transfer function (MTF) curve and dividing it by the integral over the diffraction-limited MTF.

In honor of Karl Strehl (1864-1940), the German physicist and mathematician who introduced the concept; → ratio.

strength
  زور   
zur (#)

Fr.: force, intensité, résistance   

The quality or quantity of force, power, resistance, etc. → line strength.
Mechanics: The ability of a material to resist → stress without yielding or fracture.

M.E., from O.E. strengþu "power, force, vigor, moral resistance," (cf. O.H.G. strengida "strength"), noun of strong.

Zur "strength," variant zâvar; Mid.Pers. zôr "strength, power, vigour," zâvar "strength, force," zôrik "powerful," loaned in Arm. zaur; Av. zāvar- "strength."

strength of materials
  زور ِ مادیگ‌ها   
zur-e mâdighâ

Fr.: résistance des matériaux   

The science concerned with physical characteristics (stress, strain, strength, stiffness, stability) of various engineering components and structures when forces are applied on them.

strength; → material.

stress
  خشر   
xošar

Fr.: contrainte   

The force acting across a unit area in a solid body, tending to produce → strain in the body or part of it. When a stress is applied to a body, the ratio of stress to strain is a characteristic constant of the body. See also → shear.

Stress "hardship, adversity, force, pressure," in part a shortening of M.Fr. destresse (fr. détresse) in part from O.Fr. estrece "narrowness, oppression," from L. strictus "compressed," p.p. of stringere "draw tight."

Xošar variant of fešâr "pressure," cf. Lori xošâr, Aftari xešâr, Qazvini, Qomi xošâl, Tabari qošâr Khotanese ssarr- "to exhilarate;" loaned in Arm. ôšarak, in Ar. afšaraj "juice."

stretch
  درگیدن   
dargidan

Fr.: étirer   

To make something longer or wider by pulling it.

M.E. strecchen, from O.E. streccan; cf. Dan. strække, Sw. sträcka, O.Fris. strekka, O.H.G. strecchan, M.L.G., M.Du., O.H.G., Ger. strecken "to stretch"), perhaps a variant of the root of stark, or from PIE root *strenk- "tight, narrow; pull tight, twist," → strain.

Dargidan, from darg "long" (Zâzâ, Ossetic), variants derâz, derež "long" (→ longitude); Mid.Pers. drâz "long;" O.Pers. darga- "long; " Av. darəga-, darəγa- "long," drājištəm "longest;" cf. Skt. dirghá- "long (in space and time);" PIE *dlonghos- "long."

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