An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < -sc Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sco sec sec sec sei sel sem sep sex Sha she sho sid sig sim sin Sir sky slo sno sod sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo SS sta sta sta sta ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swi syn Syr > >>

Number of Results: 1290
Schwarzschild black hole
  سیه‌چال ِ شو‌آرتسشیلد   
siyahcâl-e Schwarzschild

Fr.: trou noir de Schwarzschild   

A → black hole with zero → angular momentum (non-rotating) and zero electric charge derived from Karl Schwarzschild 1916 exact solution to Einstein's vacuum → field equations.

Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), German mathematical physicist, who carried out the first relativistic study of black holes. → black hole.

Schwarzschild metric
  متریک ِ شو‌آرتسشیلد   
metrik-e Schwarzschild

Fr.: métrique de Schwarzschild   

In → general relativity, the → metric that describes the → space-time outside a static mass with spherically symmetric distribution.

Schwarzschild black hole; → metric.

Schwarzschild radius
  شعاع ِ شو‌آرتسشیلد   
šo'â'-e Schwarzschild

Fr.: rayon de Schwarzschild   

The critical radius at which a massive body becomes a → black hole, i.e., at which light is unable to escape to infinity: Rs = 2GM / c2, where G is the → gravitational constant, M is the mass, and c the → speed of light. The fomula can be approximated to Rs≅ 3 x (M/Msun), in km. Therefore, the Schwarzschild radius for Sun is about 3 km and for Earth about 1 cm.

Schwarzschild black hole; → radius.

Schwarzschild singularity
  تکینی ِ شو‌آرتسشیلد   
takini-ye Schwarzschild

Fr.: singularité de Schwarzschild   

A region of infinite → space-time curvature postulated to lie within a → black hole.

Schwarzschild black hole; → singularity.

Schwarzschild solution
  لویش ِ شو‌آرتسشیلد   
luyeš-e Schwarzschild

Fr.: solution de Schwarzschild   

The first exact solution of → Einstein's field equations that describes the → space-time geometry outside a spherical distribution of mass.

Briefly following Einstein's publication of → General Relativity, Karl Schwarzschild discovered this solution in 1916 (Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Phys.-Math. Klasse, 189); → Schwarzschild black hole.

Schwarzschild's criterion
  سنجیدار ِ شو‌آرتسشیلد   
sanjdiâr-e Schwarzschild

Fr.: critère de Schwarzschild   

The condition in stellar interior under which → convection occurs. It is expressed as: |dT/dr|ad < |dT/dr|rad, where the indices ad and rad stand for adiabatic and radiative respectively. This condition can also be expressed as: ∇ad<∇rad, where ∇ = d lnT / d lnP = P dT / T dP with T and P denoting temperature and pressure respectively. More explicitly, in order for convection to occur the adiabatic temperature gradient should be smaller than the actual temperature gradient of the surrounding gas, which is given by the radiative temperature gradient if convection does not occur. Suppose a hotter → convective cell or gas bubble rises accidentally by a small distance in height. It gets into a layer with a lower gas pressure and therefore expands. Without any heat exchange with the surrounding medium it expands and cools adiabatically. If during this rise and → adiabatic expansion the change in temperature is smaller than in the medium the gas bubble remains hotter than the medium. The expansion of the gas bubble, adjusting to the pressure of the medium, happens very fast, with the speed of sound. It is therefore assumed that the pressure in the gas bubble and in the surroundings is the same and therefore the higher temperature gas bubble will have a lower density than the surrounding gas. The → buoyancy force will therefore accelerate it upward. This always occurs if the adiabatic change of temperature during expansion is smaller than the change of temperature with gas pressure in the surroundings. It is assumed that the mean molecular weight is the same in the rising bubble and the medium. See also → Ledoux's criterion; → mixing length.

Named after Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), German mathematical physicist (1906 Göttinger Nachrichten No 1, 41); → criterion.

dâneš (#)

Fr.: science   

1) The study of the physical and natural phenomena, especially by using systematic observation and experiment.
2) A systematically organized body of knowledge about a particular subject. See also: → knowledge, → cognition.

M.E., from O.Fr. science, from L. scientia "knowledge," from sciens (genitive scientis), pr.p. of scire "to know," probably originally "to separate one thing from another, to distinguish," related to scindere "to cut, divide;" PIE base *skei- "to cut, split;" cf. Pers. gosastan "to tear, cut, break," from Mid.Pers. wisistan "to break, split," Av. saed-, sid- "to split, break," asista- "unsplit, unharmed;" Skt. chid- "to split, break, cut off;" Gk. skhizein "to split;" Goth. skaidan; O.E. sceadan "to divide, separate."

Dâneš, verbal noun of dân-, dânestan "to know" (Mid.Pers. dânistan "to know"), variant šenâxtan, šenâs- "to recognize, to know" (Mid.Pers. šnâxtan, šnâs- "to know, recognize"); O.Pers./Av. xšnā- "to know, learn, come to know, recognize;" cf. Skt. jñā- "to recognize, know," jānāti "he knows;" Gk. gignoskein "to know, think, judge," cognate with L. gnoscere, noscere "to come to know" (Fr. connaître; Sp. conocer); P.Gmc. *knoeanan; O.E. cnawan, E. know; Rus. znat "to know;" PIE base *gno- "to know."

science fiction

Fr.: science fiction   

A form of fiction that draws imaginatively on scientific knowledge and speculation in its plot, setting, theme, etc. (

science; → fiction.

  دانشی، دانشیک   
dâneši, dânešik

Fr.: scientifique   

Of or pertaining to science or the sciences.
Systematic or accurate in the manner of an exact science.

From M.Fr. scientifique, from M.L. scientificus "pertaining to science," from L. scientia "knowledge," → science, + -ficus "making," from facere "to make." → -ic

Dâneši, dânešik, from dâneš, → science + -i, -ik, → ic.

scientific fact
  باشای ِ دانشی، ~ دانشیک   
bâšâ-ye dâneši, ~ dânešik

Fr.: fait scientifique   

An agreement by competent observers of a series of observations of the same phenomena. From time to time scientific facts are revised by additional data (G. Smooth, Lawrence Berkeley Lab website).

scientific; → fact.

scientific method
  روش ِ دانشی   
raveš-e dâneši

Fr.: méthode scientifique   

The process by which scientists, collectively and over time, endeavor to construct an accurate (that is, reliable, consistent, and non-arbitrary) representation of the world. The scientific method has four steps:
1) Observation and description of a phenomenon or group of phenomena.
2) Formulation of an hypothesis to explain the phenomena. In physics, the hypothesis often takes the form of a causal mechanism or a mathematical relation.
3) Use of the hypothesis to predict the existence of other phenomena, or to predict quantitatively the results of new observations.
4) Performance of experimental tests of the predictions by several independent experimenters and properly performed experiments.
If the experiments bear out the hypothesis it may come to be regarded as a theory or law of nature. If the experiments do not bear out the hypothesis, it must be rejected or modified. What is key in the description of the scientific method just given is the predictive power (the ability to get more out of the theory than you put in) of the hypothesis or theory, as tested by experiment. It is often said in science that theories can never be proved, only disproved. There is always the possibility that a new observation or a new experiment will conflict with a long-standing theory (Frank L. H. Wolfs, University of Rochester).

scientific; → method.

scientific notation
  نمادگان ِ دانشی، ~ دانشیک   
namâdgân-e dâneši, ~ dânešik

Fr.: notation scientifique   

A compact format for writing very large or very small numbers. Numbers are made up of three parts: the coefficient, the base and the exponent. For example 3.58 x 104 is the scientific notation for 35,800.

scientific; → notation.


Fr.: scientificité   

The quality of the practices and theories that aim at establishing reproducible regularities in phenomena by using experimental method and providing a clearly formulated description.

scientific + → -ity.

dânešmand (#)

Fr.: scientifique   

An expert in science, especially one of the physical or natural sciences. → scholar.

From → science + -ist an agent noun suffix.

Dânešmand, from dâneš, → science, + -mand suffix of possession.

susu (#)

Fr.: scintillation   

1) Rapid variation in the brightness, wavelength, and mean position of stars caused by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere.
2) In radio astronomy, rapid fluctuations in the detected intensity of radiation from compact cosmic radio sources due to disturbances in ionized gas through which the radiation has passed. → interstellar scintillation.

From L. scintillationem (nominative scintillatio), from scintillatus p.p. of scintillare "to send out sparks, to flash," from scintilla "particle of fire, spark."

Susu, from su "light," related to suz "burning," present stem of suxtan; Mid.Pers. sôxtan, sôzidan "to burn," Av. base saoc- "to burn, inflame" sūcā- "brilliance," upa.suxta- "inflamed;" cf. Skt. śoc- "to light, glow, burn," śocati "burns," śoka- "light, flame;" PIE base *(s)keuk- "to shine."

scintillation counter
  سوسو شمار   
susu šomâr

Fr.: compteur à scintillation   

A device for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation by means of flashes produced when the radiation particles strike a sensitive layer of phosphor.

scintillation; → counter.


Fr.: scléronome   

Relating to a constraint or system that does not contain time explicitly. For example, a pendulum with an inextensible string of length l0 is described by the equation: x2 + y2 = l02 is both → holonomic and scleronomous.

From Gk. sclero-, from skleros "hard" + -nomous, → -nomy.

Saxtdâtik, from saxt, → hard, + dâtik, → -nomy.

Každom (#)

Fr.: Scorpion   

The Scorpion. A large and impressive constellation in the → Zodiac, which lies between → Libra to the west and → Sagittarius to the east. Scorpius is located in the southern hemisphere near the center of the Milky Way at approximately 17h right ascension, -40° declination. The bright, red star → Antares marks the heart of the scorpion. The constellation contains deep sky objects such as the open clusters M6 and M7, and the globular clusters M4 and M80. Also in the southern end of the constellation there is the open star cluster NGC 6231. Abbreviation: Sco; genitive: Scorpii.

M.E., from O.Fr. scorpion, from L. scorpionem (nominative scorpio), from Gk. skorpios "a scorpion," from PIE base *(s)ker- "to cut," → shear. According to Gk. mythology, the constellation represents a giant scorpion sent forth by the earth-goddess Gaia to kill the giant Orion when he threatened to slay all the beasts of the earth. Orion and the Scorpion were afterward placed amongst the stars as a pair of constellations. The two opponents are never seen in the sky at the same time, for one constellation sets as the other rises. The scorpion's claws were originally formed by Libra.

Každom "scorpion," variants kajdom, gaždom literally "crooked tail," from Mid.Pers. gazdum literally "stinging tail," from gaz present stem of gazidan (also Mod.Pers.) "to sting, to bite" + dum, dumb (Mod.Pers. dom, domb) "tail;" Av. duma- "tail."

Scorpius X-1
  کژدم X-1   
Každom X-1

Fr.: Scorpius X-1   

The first and the brightest X-ray source in the sky, after the Sun, discovered in 1962. Scorpius X-1 is a low-mass → X-ray binary consisting of a compact object like a → neutron star or a → black hole, and a low-mass stellar companion. The compact object has a mass of 1.4 → solar masses and the companion 0.42 solar masses. The orbital period is 18.9 hours, and the system lies at a distance of about 9,000 → light-years. The X-rays come from → accretion, where material from the companion overflows its → Roche lobe and spirals down onto the compact object. The luminosity results from the transformation of the falling material's → gravitational potential energy to heat by → viscosity in the → accretion disk.

Named such by the discoverers (Giacconi et al. 1962), because it was the first extrasolar → X-ray source of the sky detected in the constellation → Scorpius.

Scorpius-Centaurus Association
  آهزش ِ کژدم-کنتاؤروس   
âhazeš-e Každom-Kentâwros

Fr.: Association Scorpion-Centaure   

The nearest OB association to the Sun, lying about 470 light-years away in the Gould Belt. It contains several hundred stars, mostly of type B, including Shaula, Lesath, and Antares.

Scorpius; → Centaurus; → association.

<< < -sc Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sco sec sec sec sei sel sem sep sex Sha she sho sid sig sim sin Sir sky slo sno sod sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo SS sta sta sta sta ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swi syn Syr > >>