An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1281
Shapley's wing
  بال ِ شپلی   
Bâl-e Shapley

Fr.: Bras de Shapley   

A large cloud of faint stars extending eastward from the → Small Magellanic Cloud to the → Large Magellanic Cloud. The wing is in fact the tail of a much larger → neutral hydrogen structure linking the SMC to the LMC. Models and observations suggest that the structure known as the → Magellanic Stream results from the Clouds' interaction with each other and the Milky Way. Several works support the finding that the SMC wing is pointing toward the LMC, and is therefore closer to us than the SMC bar.

Named after the American astronomer Harlow Shapley (1885-1972), who discovered this structure (1940, Harvard Bull., 914, 8); → wing.

Shapley-Ames Catalog
  کاتالوگ ِ شیپلی-ایمز   
kâtâlog-e Shapely-Ames

Fr.: catalogue de Shapely-Ames   

A catalog of 1,249 galaxies, brighter than the 13th magnitude, published in 1932. A revised version was published by A.R. Sandage and G. A. Tammann in 1981.

By the American astronomer Harlow Shapley (1885-1972) and the American woman astronomer Adelaide Ames (1900-1932), who died in a drowning accident; → catalog.

Sharafeddin's staff
  چوبدست ِ شرف‌الدین   
cubdast-e sharafeddin

Fr.: bâton de Sharafeddin   

linear astrolabe.

Named after the Iranian mathematician and astronomer Sharafeddin Tusi (c1135-1213), who invented the instrument. Not to be confused with Nasireddin Tusi (1201-1274), → Nasireddin couple; → staff.

share
  ۱) بش؛ ۲) بشیدن   
1) baš; 2) bašidan

Fr.: 1) part; 2) partager   

1a) The full or proper portion or part allotted or belonging to or contributed or owed by an individual or group.
1b) One of the equal fractional parts into which the capital stock of a joint-stock company or a corporation is divided.
2a) To divide and distribute in shares; apportion.
2b) To use, participate in, enjoy, receive, etc., jointly (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.E. scearu "a cutting, shearing; a part or division," related to sceran "to cut;" O.H.G. scara "troop, share of forced labor," Ger. Schar "troop, band," properly "a part of an army," O.N. skör "rim;" from PIE root *(s)ker- "to cut."

Bâš, from Kurd. (Sorani) baš "share, part;" variant of baxš "share, portion;" baxšidan "to divide," → division; bâž "tribute, toll, impost," → distribute.

sharp
  ۱) تیز؛ ۲) تیگ   
1) tiz; 2) tig

Fr.: 1) tranchant, pointu; 2) net   

1) Having a thin cutting edge or a fine point.
2) Of an image, clearly defined; distinct. → sharp image.

M.E.; O.E. scearp "cutting, keen, sharp;" cf. Du. scherp, Ger. scharf "sharp;" PIE base *(s)ker- "to cut."

Tiz "sharp," variants tež, tej, tij, tiq, tik, tig; Mid.Pers. tigr, têz, têž "sharp;" O.Pers. tigra- "pointed," tigra.xauda- "pointed helmet (epithet of Scythians);" Av. tiγra- "pointed," tiγray- "arrow," tiži.arštay- "with the pointed spear;" cf. Skt. tikta- "sharp, pungent, bitter," tejas- "sharpness, edge, point or top of a flame;" PIE base *st(e)ig- "to stick; pointed." Cognates in other IE languages: Gk. stizein "to prick, puncture," stigma "mark made by a pointed instrument;" L. in-stigare "to goad;" O.H.G. stehhan; Ger. stechen "to stab, prick;" Du. stecken; O.E. sticca "rod, twig, spoon;" E. stick.

sharp image
  تصویر ِ تیگ   
tasvir-e tig

Fr.: image nette   

An image with clear and distinct details. Opposite of → blurred image.

sharp; → image.

sharpen
  ۱) تیز کردن؛ ۲) تیگیدن   
1) tiz kardan; 2) tigidan

Fr.: 1) aiguiser; 2) rendre plus net   

1) To make sharp or sharper.
2) To increase the spatial resolution or the clearness of an image; same as → deblur; → deconvolve.

Verbal form of → sharp.

Tigidan "to sharpen," verbal form of tigsharp.

Sharpless catalogue
  کاتالوگ ِ شارپلس   
kâtâlog-e Sharpless

Fr.: catalogue de Sharpless   

A list of 313 individual → H II regions in the → northern → Milky Way (north of declination -27°). It includes several → planetary nebulae, → supernova remnants, and → reflection nebulae. The first edition (Sh-1) was published in 1953 with 142 objects and second and final version (Sh-2) was published in 1959. The catalog categorizes the H II regions in terms of several parameters, such as diameter, form (circular, elliptical, irregular), structure (amorphous/filamentary), brightness, and number of associated stars, which are further discussed in terms of their spectral classes.

Stewart Sharpless (1959) A Catalogue of H II Regions, ApJ Suppl. 4, 257; → catalog.

Shaula (λ Scorpii)
  شوله   
Shulé (#)

Fr.: Shaula   

The second brightest star in the constellation → Scorpius. Shaula is a multiple star with three visible components. The first, Lambda Scorpii A, is classified as a B-type → subgiant. The 15th magnitude Lambda Scorpii B has a separation of 42 arcseconds from component A, while the 12th magnitude Lambda Scorpii C is 95 arcseconds from A. It is not known whether or not these components are physically associated with component A. The component A is actually a triple system consisting of two B-type stars and a pre-main sequence star.

Shaula, from Ar. ash-shaulah (الشولاء) the "raised tail" of Scorpion.

SHB star
  ستاره‌ی ِ SHB   
setâre-ye SHB

Fr.: étoile SHB   

Same as → supra-horizontal branch star.

supra-; → horizontal; → branch; → star.

shear
  ۱) کرن؛ ۲) کرنیدن   
1) karn; 2) karnidan

Fr.: 1) cisaillement; 2) cisailler   

1) (n.) General: A scissors of large size.
Physics: A → stress applied to a body in the plane of its faces or perpendicular to its axis. As a consequence, parallel planes in the body remain parallel, but are displaced in a direction parallel to themselves. See also → strain.
2) (v.) General: To cut hair, fleece, or foliage from the surface of something using a sharp tool.
Physics: To cause something to deform or break by applying forces acting parallel to the plane.

M.E. sheren, O.E. sceran, scieran; cf. O.H.G. scrinden "to split;", Du. scheren, Ger. scheren "to shear;" from PIE *(s)ker- "to cut, to scrape, to hack;" cf. Pers. kârd "knife;" Av. kart- "to cut;" Skt. krntáti "cuts;" Gk. keirein "to cut, shear;" Lith. skiriu "to separate."

1) Karn, from Laki caré, Farâhâni carra, Tabari carci "a scissors for cutting sheep wool," cognate with Pers. kârd "knife; " Mid.Pers. kârt "knife," karēnītan, karītan "to cut;" Av. karət- "to cut;" cf. Skt. kart- "to cut," krpāna- "sword, knife;" Gk. karpos "fruit;" L. carpere "to cut, divide, pluck;" PIE base *(s)ker- "to cut."
Karnidan infinitive from karn.

shear modulus
  پیمون ِ کرن   
peymun-e karn

Fr.: module de cisaillement   

The ratio of the applied → stress to the change in shape (→ strain) produced in an → elastic body. The bigger this quantity the more rigid is the material since for the same change in strain a bigger force is needed. Also called → shear modulus.

shear; → modulus.

shear turbulence
  آشوبناکی ِ کرنی   
âšubnâki-ye karni

Fr.: turbulence de cisaillement   

A type of → instability occurring within a → fluid as a result of the → shear caused by → differential rotation. The condition for shear instability is expressed by the → Richardson criterion. Shear turbulence is likely the most efficient → mixing process in stellar → radiative zones.

shear; → turbulence.

shear wave
  موج ِ کرنی   
mowj-e karni

Fr.: onde de cisaillement   

A wave that occurs in an elastic medium with the disturbances perpendicular to the direction of motion of the wave. Shear waves do not propagate through a fluid. Also called S-wave, secondary wave, and transverse wave.

shear; → wave.

Shedir (α Cassiopeiae)
  صدر   
Sadr (#)

Fr.: Shedir   

The brightest star in the constellation → Cassiopeia. It is a supergiant K0 III star with a visual magnitude of 2.23 at a distance of 230 light-years. It has a large luminosity, 855 times that of our Sun, and a notable size, 48 times that of the Sun. Its effective temperature is 4530 K. Name variants: Schedar, Shedar, and Schedir. Also known as HR 168 and HD 3712.

From Ar. as-sadr (الصدر) "chest, breast," contraction of as-sadr-al-Zat-al-kursi (الصدر‌الذات‌الکرسی) "the chest of the throne's owner" or "the chest of the seated one" referring to the Ar. rendering of the character in Gk. mythology.

shell
  پوسته   
pusté (#)

Fr.: coquille; couche   

1) General: A relatively thin external form covering a hollow space.
2) Physics: → electron shell.
3) → seashell.
4) Astro.: → shell burning; → shell galaxy; → shell star; → shellular rotation; → SNR shell.

M.E.; O.E. sciell, scill "seashell, eggshell," related to O.E. scealu "shell, husk;" cf. W.Fris. skyl "peel, rind," M.L.G. schelle "rind, egg shell," Goth. skalja "tile;" PIE base *(s)kel- "to cut, cleave."

Pusté "shell," from pust "skin;" Mid.Pers. pôst "skin;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Av. pastô-, in pastô.fraθanhəm "of the breadth of the skin;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth."

shell burning
  سوزش ِ پوسته   
suzeš-e pusté

Fr.: combustion en couche   

The nuclear reactions in a shell around a star's core that continue after the fuel in the core itself has been exhausted. As the fuel is progressively exhausted, the shell moves outward until it enters regions too cool for the reactions to continue. For example, after the exhaustion of hydrogen in the core, helium burning might take place in the core with a shell of hydrogen burning surrounding it. Stars may have more than one region of shell burning during their stellar evolution, each shell with its own nuclear reactions. → hydrogen shell burning; → helium shell burning.

shell; → burning.

shell galaxy
  کهکشان ِ پوسته‌دار   
kahkešân-e pustedâr

Fr.: galaxie en coquille   

An elliptical galaxy that is surrounded by thin shells of stars which are thought to have been ejected during a galaxy merger. Shell galaxies are different from ring galaxies in that the shells are much further away from the galaxy's centre and much fainter than the rings. Spectroscopy of the stars in the shell show that they are old whereas the stars in a ring galaxy are young.

shell; → galaxy.

shell star
  ستاره‌ی ِ پوسته‌دار   
setâre-ye pustedâr

Fr.: étoile à enveloppe   

A main-sequence star, usually of spectral class B to F, whose spectrum shows bright emission lines superimposed on the normal absorption lines. The emission spectrum is explained by the presence of a circumstellar shell of gas surrounding the star at the equator. Shell stars are fast rotators.

shell; → star.

shellular rotation
  چرخش ِ پوسته‌ای   
carxeš-e puste-yi

Fr.: rotation coquillaire   

A rotation mode in which internal rotation of a star depends essentially on depth and little on latitude: Ω(r,θ) = Ω(r), where r is the mean distance to the stellar center of the considered level surface (or → isobar). This particular mode was introduced by J.-P. Zahn (1992, A&A 265, 115) to simplify the treatment of rotational → mixing, but also on more physical grounds. Indeed differential rotation tends to be smoothed out in latitude through → shear turbulence. See also → von Zeipel theorem; → meridional circulation .

Shellular, the structure of this term is not clear; it may be a combination of → shell (referring to star's assumed division in differentially rotating concentric shells) + (circ)ular, → circular. The first bibliographic occurrence of shellular is seemingly in Ghosal & Spiegel (1991, On the Thermonuclear Convection: I. Shellular Instability, Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 61, 161). However, surprisingly the term appears only in the title, and nowhere in the body of the article; → rotation.

Carxeš, → rotation; puste-yi, adj. of pusté, → shell.

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