An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1326
statistical hypothesis testing
  آزمون ِ انگاره‌ی ِ آماری   
âzmun-e engâre-ye âmâri

Fr.: test d'hypothèse statistique   

A method of making decision between rejecting or not rejecting a → null hypothesis on the basis of a set of observations.

statistical; → hypothesis; → test.

statistical inference
  دربرد ِ آماری   
darbord-e âmâri

Fr.: inférence statistique   

The process of inferring certain facts about a → statistical population from results found in a → sample.

statistical; → inference.

statistical law
  قانون ِ آماری   
qânun-e âmâri (#)

Fr.: loi statistique   

A law that governs the behavior of a system consisting of a large number of particles and which differs from the laws obeyed by each of the particles making up the macroscopic system. See also → dynamical law.

statistical; → law.

statistical mechanics
  مکانیک ِ آماری   
mekânik-e âmâri (#)

Fr.: mécanique statistique   

statistical physics.

statistical; → mechanics.

statistical parallax
  دیدگشت ِ آماری   
didgašt-e âmâri

Fr.: parallaxe statistique   

The mean parallax of a group of stars that are all at approximately the same distance, as determined from their radial velocities and proper motions.

statistical; → parallax.

statistical physics
  فیزیک ِ آماری   
fizik-e âmâri (#)

Fr.: physique statistique   

The branch of physics that applies methods of → probability theory and → statistics to the behavior of large numbers of microscopic particles (such as molecules, atoms, or subatomic particles) in order to explain and predict the overall properties of the system composed of such particles.

statistical; → physics.

statistical population
  پرینش ِ آماری   
porineš-e âmâri

Fr.: population statistique   

Any collection of individuals or items from which → samples are drawn. See also → finite population, → infinite population.

statistical; → population.

statistical thermodynamics
  گرماتوانیک ِ آماری   
garmâtavânik-e âmâri

Fr.: thermodynamique statistique   

Same as → statistical mechanics.

statistical; → thermodynamics.

statistical weight
  وزن ِ آماری   
vazn-e âmâri

Fr.: poids statistique   

1) Statistics: A number assigned to each value or range of values of a given quantity, giving the number of times this value or range of values is found to be observed.
2) Statistical mechanics: A multiplicative factor in the expression for the probability of finding a system in a given quantum state. Usually the number of degenerate substates contained in the state.

statistical; → weight.

âmâr (#)

Fr.: statistique   

A branch of applied mathematics that deals with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population parameters.

From Ger. Statistik "political science," from Mod.L. statisticus (collegium) "state affairs," from It. statista "person skilled in statecraft," from stato "state," ultimately from L. status "position, form of government;" cognate with Pers. ist-, istâdan "to stand" (Mid.Pers. êstâtan; O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set;" Av. hištaiti; cf. Skt. sthâ- "to stand;" Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Lith. statau "place;" Goth. standan; PIE base *sta- "to stand").

Âmâr "computation, arithmetic; statistics," from âmârdan "to reckon, to calculate," related to ošmârdan, šomârdan, šomordan "to count, to calculate," mar, mâr- "count, reckon, measure," bimar "countless," nahmâr "great, large, big;" Mid.Pers. âmâr "calculating, reckoning;" Av. base mar- "to have in mind, remember, recall," hišmar-; cf. Skt. smr-, smarati "to remember, he remembers," L. memor, memoria, Gk. mermera "care," martyr "witness."


Fr.: status   

1) The position of an individual in relation to another or others, especially in regard to social or professional standing.
2) State or condition of affairs (

From L. status "condition, position, state, attitude" from p.p. stem of stare "to stand," from PIE *ste-tu-, from root *sta- "to stand," → state., + -tus suffix of action.

Estâté, from estat, → state, + nuance suffix .

steady flow
  تچان ِ پایا   
tacân-e pâyâ

Fr.: écoulement constant, ~ stationnaire   

A flow in which the characterizing conditions, such as → streamlines or velocity at any given point, do not change with time.

steady; → flow.

Tacân, → flow; pâyâ "steady, constant," from pâyidan "to stand firm, to be constant, steady," from Mid.Pers. pattây-, pattutan "to last, endure, stay."

steady state theory
  نگره‌ی ِ حالت ِ پایا   
negare-ye hâlat-e pâyâ

Fr.: théorie de l'état stationnaire   

A → cosmological model according to which the → Universe has no beginning and no end and maintains the same mean density, in spite of its observed expansion, by the continual creation of matter throughout all space. The theory was first put forward by Sir James Jeans in about 1920 and again in revised form in 1948 by Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold. It was further developed by Sir Fred Hoyle to deal with problems that had arisen in connection with the alternative → Big Bang model. Observations since the 1950s have produced much evidence contradictory to the steady state theory and supportive of the Big Bang model. More specifically, the steady state theory attributed the → cosmic microwave background to → thermal radiation from → dust clouds, but this cannot account for a single → blackbody spectrum. Moreover, the steady state theory lacked a plausible mechanism for the creation of matter in space. See also → perfect cosmological principle.

steady; → state; → theory.

boxâr (#)

Fr.: vapeur   

The vapor into which water is changed when boiled.

From M.E. steme, O.E. steam; cognate with Du. stoom, of unknown origin.

Boxâr, → vapor.

steam engine
  ماشین ِ بخار   
mâšin-e boxâr (#)

Fr.: machine à vapeur   

An engine in which the energy of hot → steam is converted into → mechanical power, especially an engine in which the force of expanding steam is used to drive one or more → pistons. The source of the steam is typically external to the part of the machine that converts the steam energy into → mechanical energy (

steam; → engine.

pulâd (#)

Fr.: acier   

A strong → alloy of → iron containing up to 1.5 percent → carbon along with small amounts of other → chemical elements such as → manganese, → chromium, → nickel, and so forth.

O.E. style; cf. O.S. stehli, O.N., M.L.G. stal, Dan. staal, Swed. stål, M.Du. stael, Du. staal, O.H.G. stahal, Ger. Stahl.

Pulâd, variant fulâd, from Mid.Pers. pôlâwad, pôlâvat, loaned in Arm. polopat, polovat, maybe related to Skt. pavīra- "a weapon with metallic point, a spear, a lance."

qapân (#)

Fr.: balance romaine   

A balance used for weighing loads that has a two beams of different lengths. The shorter beam has a hook or the like for holding the object to be weighed and the longer one supports a movable counterpoise that slides to attain a balance.

steel; yard, from M.E. yard(e), O.E. gerd "straight twig;" cognate with Du. gard, Ger. Gerte "rod."

Qapân, from kapân "a large balance with one scale, being kept in equilibrium by a weight on the other end of the beam, a lever balance" (Steingass).

Stefan-Boltzmann constant
  پایای ِ اشتفان-بولتسمن   
pâyâ-ye Stefan-Boltzmann

Fr.: constante de Stefan-Boltzmann   

The constant of proportionality present in the → Stefan-Boltzmann law. It is equal to σ = 5.670 × 10-8 W m-2 K-4 or 5.670 × 10-5 erg cm-2 s-1 K-4.

Stefan-Boltzmann law; → constant.

Stefan-Boltzmann law
  قانون ِ اشتفان-بولتسمن   
qânun-e Stefan-Boltzmann

Fr.: loi de Stefan-Boltzmann   

The flux of radiation from a blackbody is proportional to the fourth power of its absolute temperature: L = 4πR2σT4. Also known as Stefan's law.

Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (1844-1906), an Austrian physicist, who made important contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics and Josef Stefan (1835-1893), an Austrian physicist; → law.

Steiner's theorem
  فربین ِ اشتاینر   
farbin-e Steiner

Fr.: théorème de Steiner   

The → moment of inertia of a body about an arbitrary axis x' is equal to the sum of its moment of inertia about axis x, passing through the center of mass of the body and parallel to axis x', and the product of the mass M of the body by the square of the distance d between axes x and x': Ix' = Ix + Md2. Same as → parallel axis theorem.

Named after Jakop Steiner (1796-1863), a Swiss mathematician who derived this statement; → theorem.

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