An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < -sc Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sco sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set Sha she sho sid sig sim sin sip ske sli Smo soc sol sol sol sol son sou Spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spo squ sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn > >>

Number of Results: 1298
  زیرکرشیدن، کاهیدن   
zirkaršidan, kâhidan

Fr.: soustraire   

To take one number away from another; deduct. To perform the arithmetic operation of → subtraction.

From L. subtractus, p.p. of subtrahere "to draw from beneath, take away, draw off," from → sub- "from under" + trahere "to pull, draw."

Zirkaršidan, literally "to draw beneath," from zir-, → sub-, + karšidan "to draw, pul, drag," variant of kašidan "to draw, protract, trail, drag, carry;" Av. karš- "to draw; to plow," karša- "furrow;" Proto-Iranian *kerš-/*xrah- "to draw, plow;" cf. Skt. kars-, kársati "to pull, drag, plow;" Gk. pelo, pelomai "to move, to bustle;" PIE base kwels- "to plow."
Kâhidan, → decrease.


Fr.: soustraction   

The operation of finding the difference between two numbers or quantities.

Verbal noun of → subtract.


Fr.: soustractif   

1) Constituting or involving → subtraction.
2) Math.: Indicating or requiring subtraction; having a → minus sign.

subtract; → -ive.

subtractive color
  رنگ ِ زیرکرششی   
rang-e zirkaršeši

Fr.: synthèse soustractive   

Color produced by mixing pigments rather than light. Mixing all of the subtractive colors together results in the color black. See also → additive color.

subtractive; → color.


Fr.: sous-type   

A special type being part of a more general type, e.g. subtype 2 among G type stars. → subclass.

sub-; → type.


Fr.: réussir   

1) To happen or terminate according to desire; turn out successfully; have the desired result.
2) To accomplish what is attempted or intended (

M.E. succeden, from O.Fr. succeder "to follow on" and directly from L. succedere "come after, follow after; go near to; come under; take the place of," also "go from under, mount up, ascend," hence "get on well, prosper, be victorious," from → sub- "next to, after" + cedere "to go, move" → process.

Kâmyâbidan, back formation from kâmyâbi, → success.

  کامیابی، کامیافت   
kâmyâbi (#), kâmyâft

Fr.: succès   

1) The favorable or prosperous termination of attempts or endeavors; the accomplishment of one's goals.
2) A performance or achievement that is marked by success, as by the attainment of honors (

From L. successus "an advance, a coming up; a good result, happy outcome," noun use of p.p. of succedere "come after," from suc-, → sub-, + ceder "to go, move," → process.

Kâmyâbi, literally "acquiring, obtaining, finding one's desire, wish," from kâm "desire, wish," → despite, + yâbi, from yâftan "to obtain, find," → interpolation.

kâmyâb (#)

Fr.: réussi, couronné de succès   

1) Achieving or having achieved success.
2) Resulting in or attended with success.

success + -ful a suffix meaning "full of, characterized by."

payâpey (#)

Fr.: successif   

Following in order or in uninterrupted sequence; e.g. → method of successive approximations.

M.E. from M.L. successivus, from successus, p.p. of succedere "come after, go near to," from → sub- "next to, after" + cedere "to go, move."

Peyâpey "successive," from pey "after; step," related to "foot" (Mid.Pers. pâd, pây, Av. pad-, Skt. pat, Gk. pos, gen. podos, L. pes, gen. pedis, P.Gmc. *fot, E. foot, Ger. Fuss, Fr. pied; PIE *pod-/*ped-) + -â- epenthetic vowel + pey, as explained.

sukroz (#)

Fr.: sucrose   

The table sugar with chemical formula C12H22O11, which is a particular type of → sugar compounds.

From → sugar + -ose a suffix borrowed from L. denoting "full of, given to."

basandegi (#)

Fr.: suffisance   

1) The state or fact of being sufficient.
2) A sufficient number or amount.

sufficient + -cy a suffix used to form abstract nouns.

basandé (#)

Fr.: suffisant   

1) Adequate for the purpose; enough.
2) Logic, Math.: A condition which, if true, guarantees that a result is also true. However, the result may also be true if the condition is not met. → if and only if.

M.E., from O.Fr. sufficient, from L. sufficiens, pr.p. of sufficere "supply, suffice," from sub "up to," → sub-, + root of facere "to make," → fact.

Basandé "sufficient, complete, worthy," from *basidan, from bas "many, much," → multi-.

pasvand (#)

Fr.: suffixe   

An → affix that follows the base to which it is added.

N.L. from suffixus, p.p. of suffigere "to attach on top of," from suf-, variant of → sub- + figere "fasten."

Pasvand, from pas- "after, behind," → back-, + vand, → affix.

šekar (#)

Fr.: sucre   

1) A family of simple, often sweet, compounds consisting of → carbon, → hydrogen, and → oxygen obtained particularly from sugarcane and sugar beets. The sugar family includes glucose, sucrose, lactose, fructose, maltose, lactose, and galactose. Sugar molecules have been detected in → interstellar medium  → molecular clouds.
2) Specifically, → sucrose.

M.E. sugre, sucre, from O.Fr. sucre, from M.L. succarum, from Ar. sukkar, from Pers. shakar, from Skt. šárkarā- "ground or candied sugar," originally "grit, gravel."

Šekar, Mid.Pers. šakar, ultimately from Skt. šárkarā-, as above.

  پیشنهادن، پیشنهاد کردن   
pišnehâdan (#), pišnehâd kardan (#)

Fr.: suggérer   

To mention or introduce (an idea, proposition, plan, etc.) for consideration or possible action: The architect suggested that the building be restored (

From L. suggestus, p.p. of suggerere "to bring under, bring up, lay beneath; afford, supply," from → sub- + gerere "to bring, carry," of unknown origin.

From pišnehâd, from piš "before," → pre-, + nehâd, past stem of nehâdan "to place, put," → position.

pišnehâd (#)

Fr.: suggestion   

1) The act of suggesting.
2) The state of being suggested.
3) Something suggested, as a piece of advice (

Verbal noun of → suggest.

gugerd (#)

Fr.: soufre   

Also sulphur, a nonmetallic chemical element; symbol S. Atomic number 16; atomic weight 32.06; melting point 112.8°C (rhombic), 119.0°C (monoclinic), about 120°C (amorphous); boiling point 444.674°C; specific gravity at 20°C, 2.07.

M.E. sulphur, from L. sulpur, sulphur, sulfur "brimstone;" maybe from Skt. sulveri "eneny of copper," as copper loses all its properties when heated with sulfur. It was known from prehistoric times. In 1809, the French chemists, Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thenard proved the elemental nature of sulfur.

Gugerd, from Mid.Pers. gôgird "sulfur," gôgirdômand "sulfurous."

  ۱) فزاک؛ ۲) فزاکیدن   
1) fozâk; 2) fozâkidan

Fr.: 1) somme; 2) sommer   

1) Math.: The number or quantity that is the result of adding two or more numbers or quantities.
2) To calculate the sum of.

M.E. summe, from O.Fr. summe, from L. summa "total number, whole, essence, gist," noun use of feminine of summus "highest," superlative of superus, → super-.

Fozâk, contraction of afzâk, from afzâ + -âk "noun suffix. The first component present stem of afzudan "to add, increase" (Mid.Pers. abzudan "to increase, grow;" O.Pers. abijav- "to increase, add to, promote," from abi-, aiby- "in addition to; to; against" + root jav- "press forward;" Av. gav- "to hasten, drive;" Skt. jav- "to press forward, impel quickly, excite," javate "hastens").


Fr.: résumer   

To make a summary of; state or express in a concise form.

summary + → -ize.


Fr.: résumé   

1) A brief account giving the main points of something.
2) Covering the main points; comprehensive.

From L. summarium "an epitome, abstract, summary," from summa "totality, gist," → sum, + → -ary.

Fozâkvâr, from fozâk, → sum, + -vâr a suffix denoting suiting, befitting, resembling, in the manner of, possession.

<< < -sc Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sco sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set Sha she sho sid sig sim sin sip ske sli Smo soc sol sol sol sol son sou Spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spo squ sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn > >>