An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1287
sucrose
  سوکروز   
sukroz (#)

Fr.: sucrose   

The table sugar with chemical formula C12H22O11, which is a particular type of → sugar compounds.

From → sugar + -ose a suffix borrowed from L. denoting "full of, given to."

sufficiency
  بسندگی   
basandegi (#)

Fr.: suffisance   

1) The state or fact of being sufficient.
2) A sufficient number or amount.

sufficient + -cy a suffix used to form abstract nouns.

sufficient
  بسنده   
basandé (#)

Fr.: suffisant   

1) Adequate for the purpose; enough.
2) Logic, Math.: A condition which, if true, guarantees that a result is also true. However, the result may also be true if the condition is not met. → if and only if.

M.E., from O.Fr. sufficient, from L. sufficiens, pr.p. of sufficere "supply, suffice," from sub "up to," → sub-, + root of facere "to make," → fact.

Basandé "sufficient, complete, worthy," from *basidan, from bas "many, much," → multi-.

suffix
  پسوند   
pasvand (#)

Fr.: suffixe   

An → affix that follows the base to which it is added.

N.L. from suffixus, p.p. of suffigere "to attach on top of," from suf-, variant of → sub- + figere "fasten."

Pasvand, from pas- "after, behind," → back-, + vand, → affix.

sugar
  شکر   
šekar (#)

Fr.: sucre   

1) A family of simple, often sweet, compounds consisting of → carbon, → hydrogen, and → oxygen obtained particularly from sugarcane and sugar beets. The sugar family includes glucose, sucrose, lactose, fructose, maltose, lactose, and galactose. Sugar molecules have been detected in → interstellar medium  → molecular clouds.
2) Specifically, → sucrose.

M.E. sugre, sucre, from O.Fr. sucre, from M.L. succarum, from Ar. sukkar, from Pers. shakar, from Skt. šárkarā- "ground or candied sugar," originally "grit, gravel."

Šekar, Mid.Pers. šakar, ultimately from Skt. šárkarā-, as above.

suggest
  پیشنهادن، پیشنهاد کردن   
pišnehâdan (#), pišnehâd kardan (#)

Fr.: suggérer   

To mention or introduce (an idea, proposition, plan, etc.) for consideration or possible action: The architect suggested that the building be restored (Dictionary.com).

From L. suggestus, p.p. of suggerere "to bring under, bring up, lay beneath; afford, supply," from → sub- + gerere "to bring, carry," of unknown origin.

From pišnehâd, from piš "before," → pre-, + nehâd, past stem of nehâdan "to place, put," → position.

suggestion
  پیشنهاد   
pišnehâd (#)

Fr.: suggestion   

1) The act of suggesting.
2) The state of being suggested.
3) Something suggested, as a piece of advice (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun of → suggest.

sulfur
  گوگرد   
gugerd (#)

Fr.: soufre   

Also sulphur, a nonmetallic chemical element; symbol S. Atomic number 16; atomic weight 32.06; melting point 112.8°C (rhombic), 119.0°C (monoclinic), about 120°C (amorphous); boiling point 444.674°C; specific gravity at 20°C, 2.07.

M.E. sulphur, from L. sulpur, sulphur, sulfur "brimstone;" maybe from Skt. sulveri "eneny of copper," as copper loses all its properties when heated with sulfur. It was known from prehistoric times. In 1809, the French chemists, Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thenard proved the elemental nature of sulfur.

Gugerd, from Mid.Pers. gôgird "sulfur," gôgirdômand "sulfurous."

sum
  ۱) فزاک؛ ۲) فزاکیدن   
1) fozâk; 2) fozâkidan

Fr.: 1) somme; 2) sommer   

1) Math.: The number or quantity that is the result of adding two or more numbers or quantities.
2) To calculate the sum of.

M.E. summe, from O.Fr. summe, from L. summa "total number, whole, essence, gist," noun use of feminine of summus "highest," superlative of superus, → super-.

Fozâk, contraction of afzâk, from afzâ + -âk "noun suffix. The first component present stem of afzudan "to add, increase" (Mid.Pers. abzudan "to increase, grow;" O.Pers. abijav- "to increase, add to, promote," from abi-, aiby- "in addition to; to; against" + root jav- "press forward;" Av. gav- "to hasten, drive;" Skt. jav- "to press forward, impel quickly, excite," javate "hastens").

summarize
  فزاکواریدن   
fozâkvâridan

Fr.: résumer   

To make a summary of; state or express in a concise form.

summary + → -ize.

summary
  فزاکوار   
fozâkvâr

Fr.: résumé   

1) A brief account giving the main points of something.
2) Covering the main points; comprehensive.

From L. summarium "an epitome, abstract, summary," from summa "totality, gist," → sum, + → -ary.

Fozâkvâr, from fozâk, → sum, + -vâr a suffix denoting suiting, befitting, resembling, in the manner of, possession.

summer
  تابستان   
tâbestân (#)

Fr.: été   

The season that starts when the Sun, during its apparent yearly motion, attains the celestial longitude 90 degrees in the Northern Hemisphere and 270 degrees in the Southern Hemisphere. The current length of the summer season, around the epoch 2000, is 93.65 days.

M.E. sumer, from O.E. sumor (cf. O.S., O.N., O.H.G. sumar, O.Fris. sumur, M.Du. somer, Du. zomer, Ger. Sommer), from PIE base *sem- "summer; cf. Av. ham- "summer;" Mid.Pers. hāin "summer;" Skt. sámā- "half-year, season;" Arm. am "year," amarn "summer;" O.Ir. sam "summer;" O.Welsh ham "summer."

From Mid.Pers. tâpistân, ultimately from Proto-Iranain *tap-stā- "hot, heat season, time, place." The first component *tap- "to shine, radiate;" cf. Mod.Pers. tâbidan, variants tâftban "to shine," tafsidan "to become hot;" Mid.Pers. tâftan "to heat, burn, shine;" taftan "to become hot;" Parthian t'b "to shine;" Av. tāp-, taf- "to warm up, heat," tafsat "became hot," tāpaiieiti "to create warmth;" cf. Skt. tap- "to heat, be/become hot; to spoil, injure, damage; to suffer," tapati "burns;" L. tepere "to be warm," tepidus "warm;" PIE base *tep- "to be warm."
The second component *stā- "to stand; to set; to place;" a suffix of "place, land, country" and in rare cases "time;" examples: لرستان "Lorestân;" کردستان "Kurdestân;" افغانستان "Afghanistan;" ترکستان "Turkistan;" پاکستان "Pakistan;" انگلستان "England;" لهستان "Poland;" کوهستان "kuhestân = mountaneous region, highland;" تابستان "summer;" زمستان "winter." From Mid.Pers. -stân, -istân. Examples: gôstân (گاوستان) "cowshed;" šapistân (شبستان) "dormitory;" tâpistân "summer;" zamistân "winter." From O.Pers. stāna- "place;" Av. stāna-, as in gaostāna- (Mid.Pers. gôstân, as above) "cowshed;" from Proto-Iranian *stāna-. This suffix is related to O.Pers./Av. base sta- "to stand;" Mod.Pers. istâdan (ایستادن) "to stand;" cf. Skt. sthā- "to stand," sthāna- "standing;" Gk. histemi "to put, place," stasis "standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Goth. standan; O.H.G. stantan; O.E. standan; E. stand; PIE base *sta- "to stand."

summer solstice
  خوریستان ِ تابستانی   
xoristân-e tâbestâni

Fr.: solstice d'été   

The moment in the northern hemisphere when the → Sun attains its highest → declination of 23°26' (or 23°.44) with respect the → equator plane. It happens when the Earth's axis is orientated directly toward the Sun, on 21 or 22 June. During the northern solstice the Sun appears to be directly overhead at noon for places situated at → latitude 23.44 degrees north, known as the → tropic of Cancer. The summer solstice can occur at any moment during the day. Two successive summer solstices are shifted in time by about 6 h. The summer solstice in the northern hemisphere is the → winter solstice in the southern hemisphere.

summer; → solstice.

summer triangle
  سه‌بر ِ تابستانی   
sebar-e tâbestâni

Fr.: triangle d'été   

The triangular shape formed by the three bright stars → Altair, → Deneb, and → Vega on the northern hemisphere's → celestial sphere, particularly visible during the summer months.

summer; → triangle.

Sun
  خورشید   
xoršid (#)

Fr.: Soleil   

The star that governs the solar system. It is a yellow main-sequence star of spectral type G2, shines with apparent magnitude -26.74, and has an absolute magnitude of +4.83. The Sun is 4.6 billion years old and lies 27,000 light-years from the Galactic center.

O.E. sunne; cf. O.N., O.S., O.H.G. sunna, M.Du. sonne, Du. zon, Ger. Sonne, Goth. sunno; cognate with Pers. xor, hur, as below.

Xoršid "sun," originally "sunlight," from xor "sun," variant hur; Mid.Pers. xwar "sun;" Av. hū-, hvar- "sun;" cf. Skt. surya-, Gk. helios, L. sol, cognate with E. sun, as above; PIE base *sawel- "sun" + šid "light, sunlight;" from Mid.Pers. šêt "shining, radiant, bright;" Av. xšaēta- "shining, brilliant, splendid, excellent."

sun-grazer
  خورشید-برمژ   
xoršid-barmaž

Fr.:   

A comet that passes extremely close to the Sun's → surface, in some cases within a few thousand kilometres of the Sun's surface. The Great Comet of 1965, Ikeya-Seki, was a member of the sun-grazer family, coming within about 650,000 km of the Sun's surface. Passing so close to the Sun, sun-grazers are subjected to destructive → tidal forces along with intense solar heat which can completely evaporate them during such a → close approach.

Sun; → grazer.

sundial
  ساعت ِ آفتابی   
sâ'at-e âftâbi (#)

Fr.: cadran solaire   

An instrument for showing apparent solar time by the position of the shadow cast by an indicator. → gnomon.

From → Sun + -dial M.E. instrument for telling time by the Sun's shadow, presumably from M.L. dialis "daily," from L. dies "day;" → diurnal.

Sâ'at-e âftâbi, from sâ'at, → clock, + âftâb, → Sun.

sunlight
  آفتاب   
âftâb (#)

Fr.: lumière solaire   

The light of the Sun.

sun; → light.

Âftâb, "sun(shine);" Mid.Pers. âftâp; Proto-Iranian *abi-tap-, from *abi- "to, upon, against" (O.Pers./Av. abiy-/aiwi- "to, upon, against;" Skt. abhi-, Gk. amphi-) + *tap- "to shine" (Mod.Pers. tâbidan, variants tâftban "to shine," tafsidan "to become hot;" Mid.Pers. tâftan "to heat, burn, shine;" taftan "to become hot;" Parthian t'b "to shine;" Av. tāp-, taf- "to warm up, heat," tafsat "became hot," tāpaiieiti "to create warmth;" cf. Skt. tap- "to heat, be/become hot; to spoil, injure, damage; to suffer," tapati "burns;" L. tepere "to be warm," tepidus "warm;" PIE base *tep- "to be warm").

sunrise
  بر‌آمد ِ خورشید   
barâmad-e xoršid

Fr.: lever du soleil   

The time at which the apparent upper limb of the rising Sun is on the astronomical horizon, that is when the true zenith distance, referred to the center of the Earth, of the central point of the disk is 90°50', based on adopted values of 34' for horizontal refraction and 16' for the Sun semidiameter.

Sun; → rise.

sunset
  فروشد ِ خورشید   
forušod-e xoršid

Fr.: coucher du soleil   

The time at which the apparent upper limb of the setting Sun is on the astronomical horizon, that is when the true zenith distance, referred to the center of the Earth, of the central point of the disk is 90°50', based on adopted values of 34' for horizontal refraction and 16' for the Sun semidiameter.

Sun; → set.

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