An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1286
scotopic vision
  دید ِ تاریکی   
did-e târiki

Fr.: vision scotopique   

Vision that occurs when the eye is dark-adapted. In scotopic vision, the level of luminance is so low that the retinal cones are not stimulated, and there is no color vision. Same as scotopia; → dark adaptation.

Scotopic, from L. Gk. skoto- combining form of skotos "darkness" + -opia akin to ope "view, look," ops "eye, face;" → vision.

Did, → vision; târiki noun from târik "dark," Mid.Pers. târig "dark," târ "darkness," Av. taθra- "darkness," taθrya- "dark," cf. Skt. támisrâ- "darkness, dark night," L. tenebrae "darkness," Hittite taš(u)uant- "blind," O.H.G. demar "twilight."

screen
  پرده   
pardé (#)

Fr.: écran   

A large, usually flat surface onto which an image is projected for viewing.
The portion of a computer terminal or monitor upon which information is displayed.

M.E. screne; O.Fr. escren "a screen against heat," from M.Du. scherm "screen, cover," or Frank. *skrank "barrier;" cf. O.H.G. skirm, skerm "protection," scrank "barrier;" Ger. Schrank "cupboard."

Pardé, from Mid.Pers. pardag "curtain, veil;" maybe cognate with Skt. patta- "cloth, an upper garment," pattaka- "cloth, girdle, strip of cloth."

screen font
  ریختار ِ پرده   
rixtâr-e pardé

Fr.: fonte d'écran   

A character used for on-screen → display. See also → printer font.

screen; → font.

screened Coulomb interaction
  اندرژیرش ِ باپرده‌ی ِ کولن   
andaržireš-e bâparde-ye Coulomb

Fr.: interaction de Coulomb écrantée   

The → Coulomb interaction reduced owing to the presence of other electrons. See → shielding effect.

screen; → coulomb; → interaction.

screening effect
  اسکر ِ پرده   
oskar-e pardé

Fr.: effet d'écran   

Same as → shielding effect.

screen; → effect.

screw
  پیچ   
pic (#)

Fr.: vis   

A piece of metal, consisting of a threaded and usually tapered shank that has a slotted head by which it is turned into something in order to fasten things together.

M.E. scrwe, screw, from M.Fr. escroue "nut, cylindrical socket," of uncertain origin.

Pic "screw," present stem of picidan "to twist, entwine, coil."

Sculptor
  پیکرتراش   
Peykartarâš (#)

Fr.: Sculpteur   

A minor and faint → constellation in the southern sky at 0h 30m → right ascension, 33° south → declination. Its brightest star is variable with a mean magnitude of only 4.31. Sculptor contains the south Galactic pole. It also contains the → Sculptor Dwarf, which is a member of the → Local Group. Abbreviation: Scl; Genitive: Sculptoris.

Sculptor was introduced by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713-1762). He originally named it Apparatus Sculptoris "the sculptor's studio," but the name was later shortened. From L. sculp(ere) "to carve" + a suffix forming personal agent nouns.

Peykartarâš, from peykar "form, figure, body" (from Mid.Pers. pahikar "picture, image;" from O.Pers. patikara- "picture, (sculpted) likeness," from patiy "against" (Av. paiti; Skt. prati; Gk. poti/proti + kara- "doer, maker," from kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kar-; Skt. kr-; cf. Skt. pratikrti- "an image, likeness, model; counterpart") + tarâš "cutter," from tarâšidan "to cut, hew; scape; shave;" (Mid.Pers. tâšitan "to cut, cleave; create by putting together different elements;" Av. taš- "to cut off, fashion, shape, create," taša- "axe" (Mod.Pers. taš tišé "axe"), tašan- "creator;" cf. Skt. taks- "to fom by cutting, tool, hammer, form," taksan- "wood-cutter, carpenter;" Gk. tekton "carpenter," tekhne "art, skill, craft, method, system;" L. textere "to weave;" PIE *teks- "to fashion").

Sculptor Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy
  کهکشان ِ کوتوله‌ی ِ بیضی‌گون ِ پیکرتراش   
kahkešân-e kutule-ye beyzigun-e Peykartarâš

Fr.: galaxie naine elliptique du Sculpteur   

A → dwarf elliptical galaxy that is a satellite of our → Milky Way. It lies about 285,000 → light-years away in the constellation → Sculptor, and has an → absolute magnitude of -11.28 and a mass of about 3 million → solar masses. The Sculptor Dwarf is a → metal-deficient galaxy containing only 4 percent of the oxygen and carbon elements in our own Galaxy.

Sculptor; → dwarf; → elliptical; → galaxy.

Sculptor Group
  گروه ِ پیکرتراش   
goruh-e Peykartarâš

Fr.: groupe du Sculpteur   

The nearest group of galaxies to our → Local Group, lying near the south Galactic pole at about 10 million → light-years distance. The Sculptor Group is dominated by five galaxies, four spiral (NGC 247, 253, 300, and 7793) and one irregular (NGC 55). The brightest of the five is NGC 253. The nearest galaxy in this group is NGC 55 which at a distance of 5 million light-years lies on the border of the Local Group.

Sculptor; → group.

Scutum
  سپر   
Separ (#)

Fr.: Ecu de Sobieski   

The Shield. A small constellation in the southern Milky Way, at 18h 40m right ascension, 10° south declination. Its brightest star has a visual magnitude of 3.85. Scutum contains several open clusters, as well as a globular cluster and a planetary nebula. The two best known deep sky objects in Scutum are M11 (NGC 6705), a dense open cluster, and M26, another open cluster also known as NGC 6694. The globular cluster NGC 6712 and the planetary nebula IC 1295 can be found in the eastern part of the constellation. Abbreviation: Sct; Genitive: Scuti.

Scutum was created by Johannes Hevelius in 1683, who originally named it L. Scutum Sobiescianum "the shield of Sobieski" to commemorate the victory of the Polish forces led by King John III Sobieski in the Battle of Vienna, and thus refers to Sobieski's Janina Coat of Arms. Later, the name was shortened to Scutum "shield."

Separ "shield," from Mid.Pers. spar "shield;" cf. Skt. phalaka- "board, lath, leaf, shield," phálati "(he) splits;" Gk. aspalon "skin, hide," spolas "flayed skin," sphalassein "to cleave, to disrupt;" O.H.G. spaltan "to split;" Goth. spilda "board;" PIE base *(s)p(h)el- "to split, to break off."

Scutum-Crux Arm
  بازوی ِ سپر-چلیپا   
bâzu-ye Separ-Calipâ

Fr.: bras Écu-Croix   

A spiral arm of our Galaxy located between the Sagittarius Arm and the Norma Arm, though it is rather less prominent than either of these two better defined spiral arms. It originates relatively close to the Sun's present position in the Galaxy, and follows a sweeping arc of about 80,000 light years to the opposite side of the Galactic disk.

Scutum; → Crux; → arm.

sea
  دریا   
daryâ (#)

Fr.: mer   

1) A large lake or landlocked body of water.
2) A large area or great number of something. → Fermi sea.

O.E. "sheet of water, sea, lake;" cf. Du. zee, Ger. See, O.N. sær "sea," Goth saiws "marsh."

Daryâ "sea;" Mid.Pers. daryâp variant zrah; O.Pers. drayah-; Av. zrayah- "sea;" cf. Skt. jráyas- "expanse, space, flat surface."

sea horizon
  افق ِ دریا   
ofoq-e daryâ

Fr.: horizon de mer   

The → apparent horizon formed by the sea.

sea; → horizon.

search
  جستجو   
jost-o-ju (#)

Fr.: recherche   

To explore or examine in order to find something.

M.E. serchen, cerchen, from O.Fr. cerchier "to search," from L. circare "to go about, wander, traverse," from circus "circle."

Jost-o-ju interfixed jost and juy past and present stem of jostan/juyidan "to seek, strive for;" Proto-Iranian *iud- "to struggle for something, to fight" (Av. yūδ- "to fight, struggle;" Mod.Pers. justan, juy- "to search, seek, ask for"); cf. Mid.Pers. vijuyihitan "to search, seek."

Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)
  جستجوی ِ هوش ِ اُسترزمینی   
jost-o-ju-ye huš-e ostar-zamini

Fr.: recherche d'intelligence extra-terrestre   

The scientific attempt to detect → intelligent extraterrestrial → life by surveying the sky to find the existence of → transmissions, especially → radio waves or → light, from a → civilization on a distant → planet. The SETI Institute, that carries out the project, is a private non-profit center founded in 1984. There are many methods that SETI scientific teams use to search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Many of these search billions of radio frequencies that reach Earth from all over the → Universe, looking for an intelligent → radio signal. Other SETI teams search by looking for signals in pulses of light emanating from the stars.

search; → extraterrestrial; → intelligence.

seashell
  صدف، کلاچک   
sadaf (#), kelâcak (#)

Fr.: coquille   

The hard shell of a marine mollusk.

sea; → shell.

Sadaf, loan from Ar. Kelâcak from Tabari, variant kelâcin, cf. Gilaki guš kuli. The component kel-, kul might be related to PIE *qarq- "to be hard," → crab.

season
  فصل   
fasl (#)

Fr.: saison   

One of the four periods of the year astronomically defined by the position of the Sun with respect to the equator. As a result of the obliquity of the ecliptic, the angular distance between the Sun and the equator varies in the course of the year. This circumstance gives rise to seasons. The current lengths of the astronomical seasons, around the year 2000, are about: spring 92.76 days, summer 93.65 days, autumn 89.84 days, and winter 88.99 days. The seasons are unequal because the Earth's orbit is slightly elliptical and the Sun is not exactly at the center of the orbit. Moreover, the Earth moves faster when it is close to the Sun than when it is farther away, so the seasons that occur when the Earth is close to the Sun pass more quickly.

M.E. sesoun, seson, from O.Fr. seison "a sowing, planting," from L. sationem (nominative satio) "a sowing," from p.p. stem of serere "to scatter seed over land."

Fasl, from Ar. faSl "cutting, dividing; section."

secant
  ۱) سکنجان؛ ۲) سکانت   
1) sekanjân; 2) sekânt (#)

Fr.: sécante   

1) Geometry: A straight line that intersects a curve in two or more points.
2) Trigonometry: For an → acute angle of a → right triangle, the function defined as the ratio of the → hypotenuse to the adjacent side. For any angle, the function defined as the ratio of the → radius vector to the → abscissa. Abbreviation sec.

From L. secant-, stem of secans, pr.p. of secare "to cut," → section.

1) Sekanjân, agent noun from sekanjidan "to shave, cut, scape," cognate with šekastan "to break," → section.
2) Sekânt, loan from Fr.

Secchi classification
  رده‌بندی ِ سکی   
radebandi-ye Secchi

Fr.: classification de Secchi   

A pioneering work in → spectral classification conducted in the 1860s. Secchi divided stars into four main groups based on the visual observation of spectra. Class I: The white and bluish stars with a continuous spectrum crossed by hydrogen bands, the metallic bands being absent or weak. Examples, → Sirius, → Vega. Class II: Yellow stars, with spectra in which the hydrogen bands were less prominent and the metallic lines more strong. Examples, Sun, → Capella. Class III: Red or orange stars, showing bands or flutings. Examples, → Antares, → Betelgeuse. Class IV: Red stars, showing bands similar to Class III, but with the sharp edge of the flutings toward the other end of the spectrum. Secchi's scheme was superseded by the photographic → Harvard classification system.

Pietro Angelo Secchi (1818-1878), Italian astronomer and Jesuit priest; → classification.

second
  ۱) دوم، دومین؛ ۲) ثانیه   
1) dovom (#), dovomin (#); 2) sâniyé (#)

Fr.: seconde   

1) Next after the first in place, time, or value.
2) The unit of time in the International System since 1967. The SI second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between two hyperfine levels of the ground state of cesium 133.

M.E., from O.Fr. second, from L. secundus "following, next in order," from root of sequi "to follow;" PIE base *sekw- "to follow;" cf. Pers. az from; Mid.Pers. hac "from;" Av. hac-, hax- "to follow," hacaiti "follows" (O.Pers. hacā "from;" Av. hacā "from, out of;" Skt. sácā "with"); Skt. sácate "accompanies, follows;" Gk. hepesthai "to follow;" Lith. seku "to follow."

1) Dovom, dovomin "ordinal number of do, two" (Mid.Pers. do; Av. dva-; cf. Skt. dvi-; Gk. duo; L. duo; (Fr. deux; E. two; Ger. zwei).
2) Sâniyé, from Ar. sâniyat (feminine) "second."

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