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saturation anjâl, anjâleš Fr.: saturation Physics:
Degree of magnetization of a substance which cannot be exceeded however strong the applied
magnetizing field. Verbal noun of → saturate. |
saturation current jarayân-e anjâl, ~ anjâleš Fr.: courant de saturation The maximum current that can be obtained in a specific circuit under specified conditions. → saturation; → current. |
saturation induction darhâzeš-e anjâl, ~ anjâleš Fr.: induction à saturation The maximum intrinsic magnetic induction possible in a material. → saturation; → induction. |
saturation signal nešâl-e anjâl, ~ anjaalesh Fr.: signal de saturation, ~ saturé In radar, a signal whose amplitude is greater than the dynamic range of the receiving system. → saturation; → signal. |
Saturn Keyvân (#) Fr.: Saturne The sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest with an equatorial diameter of 120,536 km orbiting at 1,429,400,000 km (9.54 AU) from Sun. Like Jupiter, Saturn is about 75% hydrogen and 25% helium with traces of water, methane, and ammonia, similar to the composition of the primordial Solar Nebula from which the solar system was formed. Saturn's interior is similar to Jupiter's consisting of a rocky core, a liquid metallic hydrogen layer and a molecular hydrogen layer. Saturn's interior is hot (12,000 K at the core). The planet radiates more energy into space than it receives from the Sun. Saturn has 34 known satellites. → Saturn's ring. O.E. Sætern "Italic god," also "most remote planet" (then known), from L. Saturnus, Italic god of agriculture, possibly from Etruscan. Keyvân Mid.Pers. Kêwân, borrowed from Aramean kâwân, from Assyrian kaiamânu. |
Saturn Nebula miq-e Keyvân Fr.: nébuleuse Saturne A planetary nebula in the Aquarius constellation discovered by William Herschel in 1782. It has a size of about 0.3 x 0.2 light-years and lies about 1400 light-years away. Also known as NGC 7009. → Saturn, such named by Lord Rosse in the 1840s, because the object has a vague resemblance to the planet Saturn in low-resolution telescopes; → nebula. |
Saturn's rings halqehâ-ye Keyvân (#) Fr.: anneaux de Saturne A system of rings around Saturn made up of countless small particles, ranging in size from micrometers to meters, that orbit the planet. The ring particles are made almost entirely of → water ice, with some contamination from → dust and other chemicals. The ring system is divided into six major components: D, C, B, A, F, and G rings, listed from inside to outside. But in reality, these major divisions are subdivided into thousands of individual → ringlets. The large gap between the A and B rings is called the Cassini division. Saturn's rings are extraordinarily thin: though they are 250,000 km or more in diameter, they are less than one kilometer thick. → A ring, → B ring, → C ring, → D ring, → F ring, → G ring. |
SB1 binary dorin-e SB1 Fr.: binaire SB1 Same as → single-lined binary. SB, for → spectroscopic binary; 1, for → single-lined; → binary. |
SB2 binary dorin-e SB2 Fr.: binaire SB2 Same as → double-lined binary. SB, for → spectroscopic binary; 2, for → double-lined; → binary. |
scalability marpel-paziri Fr.: scalibilité, extension graduelle, évolutivité,
facteur d'échelle, extensibilité The ability of something, especially a computer system, to adapt to increased demands. |
scalable marpel-pazir Fr.: scalable, échelonnable, extensible, évolutif. The quality of a system that can be expanded or reduced in scale. Scalability allows computer equipment and software programs to be upgraded easily, rather than needing to be replaced. |
scalar marpeli, marpelvâr Fr.: scalaire Any quantity which is sufficiently defined only with its magnitude, when given in
appropriate units. Compare → vector. Of or pertaining to → scale. |
scalar density cagâli-ye marpeli Fr.: densité scalaire A → tensor density of → order 0. |
scalar field meydân-e marpeli Fr.: champ scalaire A → field whose value at every point of space is independent of → direction and → position. Examples include → temperature distribution throughout space and → pressure distribution in a → fluid. Similarly, a → potential field, such as the Newtonian → gravitational field or the electric potential in → electrostatics are scalar fields. In quantum field theory, a scalar field is associated with → spin zero particles, such as → mesons or → bosons. Therefore, the → Higgs boson is associated with a scalar field. The → derivative of a scalar field results in a → vector field is called the → gradient. In contrast to a vector field, a scalar field is → invariant under the → rotation of the → coordinate system. The → inflation in the → early Universe is supposed to be driven by a scalar field, called the → inflaton field. |
scalar perturbation partureš-e marpeli Fr.: perturbation scalaire The energy density fluctuations in the → photon-baryon plasma that bring about hotter and colder regions. This perturbation creates velocity distributions that are out of phase with the acoustic density mode. The fluid velocity from hot to cold regions causes blueshift of the photons, resulting in → quadrupole anisotropy. → scalar; → perturbation. |
scalar processor âmâyeš:gar-e marpeli Fr.: processeur scalaire Computers: A type of central processing unit in which only one operation on data is executed at a time. By contrast, in a vector processor, a single instruction operates simultaneously on multiple data items. |
scalar product farâvard-e marpeli Fr.: produit scalaire A multiplication of two vectors giving a scalar. The scaler product of V_{1} and V_{2} is defined by: V_{1}.V_{2} = V_{1}.V_{2} cos α, where V_{1} and V_{2} are the magnitudes of the vectors and α is the angle between them. Same as dot product. See also → vector product. |
scalar wave mowj-e marpeli Fr.: onde scalaire In theories of gravitation, a kind of → gravitational wave, transversal and/or longitudinal, characterized by → spin zero. |
scalar-tensor theory negare-ye marpel-tânsori Fr.: théorie scalaire-tensorielle An alternative to the standard → general relativity of gravity that contains not only the → tensor field (or → metric), but also a → scalar field. In this formalism, the → gravitational constant is considered to vary over time. As a consequence, the measured strength of the gravitational interaction is a function of time. Same as → Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory. |
scale 1) marpel; 2) marpelidan Fr.: 1) échelle; 2) augmenter/réduire proportionnellement 1a) A succession or progression of steps or degrees. M.E., from L. scalae "ladder, stairs." Marpel, literally "measuring stick, measuring step," on the model of Ger. Maßstab from Mass "measure" + Stab "stick, bar, pole, baton." The first element from Mod./Mid.Pers. mar "measure, count," from Av. mar- "to count, remember;" Skt. smr, smarati "to remember, he remembers;" L. memor, memoria; Gk. mermera "care," martyr "witness." The second element pel "stick, a bit of wood;" pel can also be interpreted as the contraction of pellé "staircase, ladder." |
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