An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1281
solar velocity
  تندای ِ خورشید، ~ خورشیدی   
tondâ-ye xoršid, ~ xoršidi

Fr.: vitesse solaire   

The rate of change of the Sun's position with respect to the local standard of rest toward the → solar apex.

solar; → velocity.

solar wind
  باد ِ خورشید، ~ ِ خورشیدی   
bâd-e xoršid, ~ xoršidi

Fr.: vent solaire   

A mass outflow, consisting of protons, electrons, and other subatomic particles, expelled constantly from the solar corona at about 500 km per second. The solar mass-loss rate in this phenomenon amounts to about 2 x 10-14 solar masses per year, or about 106 tons per second. → stellar wind.

solar; → wind.

solar year
  سال ِ خورشیدی   
sâl-e xoršidi (#)

Fr.: année solaire   

The period of time required for the Earth to make one complete revolution around the Sun. Solar year is a general term for: → tropical year, → vernal equinox year, and → autumnal equinox year, which have different lengths.

solar; → year.

solar-like star
  ستاره‌ی ِ خورشیدمانند   
setâre-ye xoršid-mânand

Fr.: étoile semblable au soleil   

A member of a very broad class of stars in which is found a mixture of late F, early, middle, and, sometimes, late G type dwarfs and sub-giants. See also → solar analog; → solar twin.

solar; → -like; → star.

solar-terrestrial phenomena
  پدیده‌های ِ خورشیدی-زمینی   
padidehâ-ye xoršidi-zamini

Fr.: phénomènes solaires-terrestres   

Any of the various phenomena observable on the Earth that are caused by the influence of the Sun, such as aurora borealis.

solar; → terrestrial; → phenomenon.

Soleil compensator
  پاهنگنده‌ی ِ سولی   
pâhangande-ye Soleil

Fr.: compensateur de Soleil   

An optical compensator which produces a constant phase change over the entire field, as opposed to the phase change produced by the → Babinet compensator, which occurs progressively across the field. The compensator consists of two wedges of the same wedge angle and a parallel plate. The optic axes of the two wedges has the same orientation. These form a variable thickness plate. One of the wedges is assembled to the fixed parallel plate. The optic axis of the parallel plate is at 90° to that of the wedges. The other wedge is attached to a micrometer and moves to produce a thickness difference between the fixed and variable thickness plates, thus producing a phase delay.

Jean-Baptiste Soleil (1798-1849); → compensateur.


Fr.: solénoïde   

A long coil of insulated copper wire containing a large number of close turns. The strength of magnetic field produced by a current carrying solenoid is directly proportional to the number of turns in the solenoid and to the strength of current in the solenoid. It also depends on the nature of "core material" used in making the solenoid. The use of → soft iron rod as core in a solenoid produces the strongest magnetism.

From Fr. solénoïde "pipe-shaped," from Gk. solen "pipe, channel" + combining form of eidos "form, shape," → -oid.

Sulvâr, from sul "pipe, gutter," Lori sil, Sangesari sula, Šahmirzâdi solla, Tabari seltek, may be cognate with Gk. solen, as above, + -vâr, → -oid.


Fr.: solide   

1) A body or object having → three  → dimensions (length, breadth, and thickness). Of or pertaining to bodies or figures of three dimensions.
2) One of the four main → states of → matter, in which the substance molecules vibrate about fixed positions. Unlike a gas or liquid, a solid has a fixed shape, and unlike a gas, a solid has a fixed volume.
3) Without holes, free from cavities, not hollow.
4) Dense, thick, or heavy in nature or appearance.
5) Reliable; that can be depended upon.

M.E., from O.Fr. solide "firm, dense, compact," from L. solidus "firm, whole, entire," from PIE base *sol- "whole;" cf. Mod.Pers. har "every, all, each, any;" O.Pers. haruva- "whole, all together;" Av. hauruua- "whole, at all, undamaged;" Skt. sárva- "whole, all, every, undivided;" Gk. holos "whole, complete;" L. salvus "whole, safe, healthy," sollus "whole, entire, unbroken."

Dafzé, from dafzak "big, gross, thick, hard" (Dehxodâ), variant dabz "thick, coarse," → concentrated; cf. Ossetic baezgin "thick, dense;" Shughni divask, Oroshori devaskak "calf of the leg;" Khotanese baysga- "thick, deep, many, large;" Sogd. δβânz "wide, coarse;" Av. bəzuuant- "thick, dense," bazah- "thickness;" Proto-Ir. *(d)banz- "to be(come) thick, dense;" cf. Gk. pakhos "thickness, coarseness;" Latvian biezs "thick" (Cheung 2007).

solid angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ فضایی، ~ دفزه   
zâviye-ye fazâyi, ~ dafzé

Fr.: angle solide   

The figure formed by three or more planes meeting at a common point or formed at the vertex of a cone. The solid angle completely surrounding a point is 4π steradian. → steradian.

solid; → angle.

Zâviyé, → angle; fazâyi "of or relating to space," → space; jâmed, → solid.

solid state
  استات ِ دفزه، حالت ِ جامد   
estât-e dafzé, hâlat-e jâmed (#)

Fr.: état solide   

In electronics, based on or consisting chiefly or exclusively of semiconducting materials, components, and related devices.

solid; → state.

solid state physics
  فیزیک ِ استات ِ دفزه، ~ حالت ِ جامد   
fizik-e estât-e dafzé, ~ hâlat-e jâmed

Fr.: physique de l'état solide   

The branch of condensed matter physics concerned with the study of rigid matter or solids in terms of their constituent particles (electrons and nuclei). The bulk of solid-state physics theory and research is focused on the electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and structural properties of crystalline solids.

solid state; → physics.

  دفزش؛ دفزانش   
dafzeš; dafzâneš

Fr.: solidification   

1) To become or make solid, hard, or firm.

solid; → -fy.

  دفزیدن؛ دفزاندن   
dafzidan; dafzândan

Fr.: se solidifier; solidifier   

1) To become or make solid, hard, or firm.

solid; → -fy.


Fr.: solidité   

The state, property, or quality of being solid. Solidness.

solid; → -ity.


Fr.: solidus   

In the → phase diagram of a → mixture at constant pressure, (such as an → alloy), the → curve that separates the → liquid+solid → phase from the all solid phase. Above the solidus some or all of the mixture will be in a liquid state. See also → liquidus.

From L. solidus, → solid.


Fr.: soliton   

Math., Physics: A solution of a certain type of partial differential equation that represents a solitary wave. A soliton is a self-reinforcing wave that maintains its shape while it travels at constant speed. Solitons are caused by a cancellation of nonlinear and dispersive effects in the medium.

From solit(ary) + → -on.

xoristân (#)

Fr.: solstice   

Either of the two points on the → ecliptic at which the apparent → longitude of the → Sun is 90° or 270°. Also the time at which the Sun is at either point. Solstices occur when the Earth's axis is oriented directly toward or away from the Sun, causing the Sun to reach its northernmost and southernmost extremes. → summer solstice, → winter solstice.

M.E., from O.Fr. solstice, from L. solstitium "point at which the sun seems to stand still," from sol, → sun, cognate with Pers. xor, xoršid, hur, as below, + p.p. stem of sistere "to come to a stop, make stand still," akin to Pers. istâdan "to stand," as below.

Xoristân, is composed of two components. The first one xor "sun," variant hur; Mid.Pers. xwar "sun;" Av. hū-, hvar- "sun;" cf. Skt. surya-, Gk. helios, L. sol, cognate with E. sun, as above; PIE base *sawel- "sun." The second component istân "standing," from istâdan "to stand;" Mid.Pers. êstâtan; O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set;" Av. hištaiti; cf. Skt. sthā- "to stand;" Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Lith. statau "place;" Goth. standan; PIE base *sta- "to stand."

solsticial colure
  کلدم ِ خوریستانی   
koldom-e xoristâni

Fr.: colure de solstice   

The great circle of the celestial sphere which passes through the poles of the celestial equator and the solstice points. → equinoctial colure.

Solsticial, adj. of → solstice; → colure.

solsticial points
  نقطه‌های ِ خوریستانی   
noqtehâ-ye xoristâni

Fr.: points solsticiaux   

The two points of the ecliptic the most distant from the equator.

Solsticial, adj. of → solstice; → point.


Fr.: soluble   

Chem.: Capable of being dissolved .

M.E., from M.Fr. soluble, from L.L. solubilis "that may be loosened or dissolved," from stem of L. solvere "loosen, dissolve," → solve.

Luyidani, from luyidan, → solve + -i, → -able.

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