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sword šamšir (#) Fr.: épée 1) A weapon having various forms but consisting typically of a long,
straight or slightly curved blade, sharp-edged on one or both
sides, with one end pointed and the other fixed in a hilt or
handle (Dictionary.com). M.E.; O.E. sweord; cognate with Du. zwaard, Ger. Schwert, Sw. svärd. Šamšir, Mid.Pers. šamšêr / šamšyl, Parthian safsêr; cf. Gk. sampsera denoting a "foreign sword." The E. scimitar derives ultimately from šamšir through M.Fr. cimeterre or directly from It. scimitarra, possibly from an unknown Ottoman Turkish word, borrowed from Pers. |
syllogism bâhamšomâri (#) Fr.: syllogisme A kind of → deductive reasoning
whereby from two initial → propositions
(two → premises) a third related
proposition (→ conclusion) is derived. The typical
form of a → categorical syllogism is "A is B;"
"C is A;" "Therefore, C is B." For example,
"All humans are mortal."
"John is human."
"Therefore, John is mortal."
"Mortal" (B) is called the
→ major term; it occurs in the first premise and
is the → predicate of the conclusion.
"John" (C), the subject of the conclusion, is called the
→ minor term. "Human," which is common to
both premises and is excluded from the conclusion, is called the
→ middle term.
See also → Aristotelian forms.
Syllogism is purely formal. It does not enrich knowledge, but gives a new presentation to what
is already known. It is also possible to have a logically valid syllogism based on
→ absurd premises. For example, "All cats are mammals."
"All cats are animals."
"Therefore, all animals are mammals."
Syllogism, representing the earliest branch of → formal logic,
was developed in its original form by Aristotle in his Organon (Prior Analytics) about
350 BC. M.E. silogisme, from O.Fr. silogisme, from L. syllogismus, from Gk. syllogismos "a syllogism," originally "inference, conclusion; computation, calculation," from syllogizesthai "bring together before the mind, compute, conclude," from assimilated form of → syn- "together" + logizesthai "to reason, to count," from logos "a reckoning, reason," → logic. Bâhamšomârik, literally "reckoning together," from bâham "together," from bâ "with," → hypo-, + ham, → syn-, + šomâr present stem of šomârdan "to reckon, calculate, enumerate, account for," → count, + suffix -i. |
syllogistic bâhamšomârik (#) Fr.: syllogistique 1a) Of or pertaining to a → syllogism. |
symbiotic hamzi Fr.: symbiotique Of or pertaining yo symbiosis in biology, denoting a close, prolonged association between two or more different organisms of different species that may be, but does not necessarily, of mutual benefit. → symbiotic star. From Mod.L., from Gk. symbiosis "a living together," from symbioun "live together," from symbios "(one) living together (with another), partner," from → syn- "together" + bios "life," → bio-. Hamzi "living together," from ham- "together," → syn-, + zi- present stem of zistan "to live," → bio-. |
symbiotic B[e] star (symB[e]) setâre-ye B[e]-ye hamzi Fr.: étoile B[e] symbiotique A → B[e] star whose spectrum shows the presence of a cool component characterized mainly by → TiO bands. |
symbiotic star setâre-ye hamzi Fr.: étoile symbiotique A stellar object whose optical spectrum displays lines characteristic of gases of two very different temperatures, typically of an M star (3500 K) and a B star (20 000 K) superimposed. A symbiotic star is in fact a close binary system. |
symbol namâd (#) Fr.: symbole 1) Something that stands for or represents something else,
especially an object representing an abstraction. M.E., from L.L. symbolum "creed, token, mark," from Gk. symbolon "sign, mark," from → syn- "together" + stem of ballein "to throw." Namâd variant of namud, nemud past stem of nemudan "to show;" Mid.Pers. nimūdan, nimây- "to show," from O.Pers./Av. ni- "down; into," → ni- (PIE), + māy- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum; PIE base *me- "to measure." |
symbolic nemâdin (#) Fr.: symbolique Of or relating to a symbol or symbols; serving as a symbol. |
symbolic logic guyik-e nemâdin Fr.: logique symbolique A modern development of → formal logic based on a system of → symbols and → axiomatics in accordance with precise rules. It uses a formalized → artificial language to avoid the ambiguities and logical inadequacies of → natural languages. Symbolic logics are → polyvalent when they admit → truth values other than → true and → false. |
symmetric relation bâzâneš-e hamâmun Fr.: relation symétrique A relation between two quantities such that the first is to the second as the second is to the first. In symbols: a R b = b R a. For example, multiplication is an operation with a symmetric relation between the factors: 5 x 3 = 3 x 5. |
symmetric tensor tânsor-e hamâmun Fr.: tenseur symétrique A tensor that is → invariant under any → permutation of its indices (→ index). In other words, a tensor that equals its → transpose. For example, a second-order → covariant tensor A_{jk} if its components satisfy the equality: A_{jk} = A_{kj}. |
symmetric, symmetrical hamâmun Fr.: symétrique Characterized by or exhibiting → symmetry. Adj. of → symmetry. |
symmetry hamâmuni Fr.: symétrie 1) A quality of a geometric figure that has exactly similar parts with respect
to a point, a line, or a plane of its own. From L. symmetria, from Gk. symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement," from symmetros "having a common measure, even, proportionate," from → syn- "together" + metron "meter;" PIE base *me- "to measure;" cf. O.Pers., Av. mā- "to measure;" Skt. mati "measures;" L. metri "to measure." Hamâmun from ham-, → syn- "together," + -â- epenthetic vowel + mun, variant mân "measure," as in Pers. terms pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," peymâné "a measure; a cup, bowl," from O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum; PIE base *me- "to measure." |
symmetry group goruh-e hamâmuni Fr.: groupe de symétrie A group of symmetry-preserving operations composed of all rigid motions or similarity transformations of some geometric object onto itself. |
syn- ham-, han- Fr.: syn- A prefix occurring in loanwords from Gk., having the same function as → co-; used, with the meaning "with, together," in the formation of compound words. Variants sy-, syl-, sym-, sys-. From Gk. syn "with, together with," of unknown origin. Ham- "together, with; same, equally, even," Mid.Pers. ham-, like L. com- and Gk. syn- with neither of which it is cognate. O.Pers./Av. ham-, Skt. sam-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same," Skt. sama-, Gk. homos-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-. The Av. ham- appears in various forms: han- (before gutturals, palatals, dentals) and also hem-, hen-. |
synchrone hamgâm Fr.: synchrone A line connecting the dust grains in a comet tail that left the nucleus at the same time. → syndyne. From L. synchronus "simultaneous," from Gk. synchronos "happening at the same time," from → syn- "together" + khronos "time." |
synchronous hamgâm (#) Fr.: synchrone 1) Going on at the same rate and exactly together.
Compare → simultaneous. From L. synchronus "simultaneous," from Gk. synchronos "happening at the same time," from → syn- "together" + khronos "time." Hamgâm literally "at the same pace," from ham-, → syn-, + gâm "step, pace," Mid.Pers. gâm, O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go," Av. gam- "to come; to go," jamaiti "goes," Mod.Pers. âmadan "to come," Skt. gamati "goes," Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step," L. venire "to come," Tocharian A käm- "to come," O.H.G. queman "to come," E. come; PIE root *gwem- "to go, come." |
synchronous orbit madâr-e hamgâm Fr.: orbite synchrone → synchronous; → orbit. |
synchronous rotation carxeš-e hamgâm (#) Fr.: rotation synchrone Of a body orbiting another, where the orbiting body takes as long to rotate on its axis as it does to make one orbit. Therefore it always keeps the same hemisphere pointed at the body it is orbiting. Both bodies are tidally locked (→ tidal locking). This phenomenon is a natural consequence of → tidal braking. Synchronous rotation is common throughout the → solar system. It is found among the satellites of → Mars (→ Phobos and → Deimos), → Jupiter (most of Jupiter satellites, including the → Galilean Moons) and → Saturn (e.g. → Iapetus). Similarly, → Pluto and its moon → Charon are locked in mutual synchronous rotation, with both of them keeping the same faces towards each other. → synchronous; → rotation. |
synchrotron sankrotron Fr.: synchrotron A type of → accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles (generally protons) in a circular path. Unlike → cyclotrons, in which particles follow a spiral path, synchrotrons consist of a single ring-shaped tube through which the particles loop numerous times, guided by precisely synchronized magnetic fields and accelerated at various points in the loop by electric field bursts. See also → synchrotron frequency, → synchrotron radiation. From synchro- a combining form representing synchronized or synchronous in compound words, from L. synchronus "simultaneous," from Gk. synchronos "happening at the same time," from → syn- "together" + khronos "time" + → -tron. Sankrotron, from Fr., as above. |
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