An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1286
superluminous supernova
  ابر-نو-اختر ِ ابر-تابان   
abarnowaxtar-e abartâbân

Fr.: supernova superlumineuse   

A → supernova with an → absolute magnitude of about -22 in optical. Examples of these newly discovered SNe include SN 2006gy, SN 2005ap, and SNe 2003ma. The nature of these objects is poorly known. Some of them are powered by the circumstellar interaction, or by the shock breakout from the dense circumstellar medium, as suggested by the presence of narrow emission lines in superluminous → Type II-N supernovae. It is also argued that superluminous SNe could be powered by a large amount of 56Ni which is synthesized as a result of energetic → core-collapse supernovae. Other scenarios include the interaction between shells ejected by the pulsational → pair-instability. See, e.g. Tanaka et al. 2012, MNRAS 422, 2675, arXiv:1202.3610, and references therein.

superluminous; → supernova.


Fr.: supermassif   

Having a mass highly exceeding a certain limit. → supermassive black hole, → supermassive neutron star, → supermassive star.

super-; → massive.

supermassive black hole (SMBH)
  سیه‌چال ِ اَبَر-پرجرم   
siyahcâl-e abar-porjerm

Fr.: trou noir supermassif   

A → black hole of tremendous mass, equivalent to those of millions or even billions of stars, which is believed to exist and occupy the centers of many galaxies. The supermassive black hole residing in the center of our → Milky Way Galaxy is the object → Sgr A* with a mass of 4 x 106solar masses within a radius of 100 → astronomical units.

supermassive; → black hole.

supermassive neutron star
  ستاره‌ی ِ نوترونی ِ ِ اَبَر-پرجرم   
setâre-ye notroni-ye abar-porjerm

Fr.: étoile à neutron supermassive   

A → neutron star of mass above the typical value that is temporarily prevented from → collapseing into a → black hole because of its rapid → rotation.

supermassive; → neutron; → star.

supermassive star
  ستاره‌ی ِ اَبَر-پرجرم   
setâre-ye abar-porerm

Fr.: étoile supermassive   

A star with an initial mass over about 120 solar masses. The existence of such stars is the present Universe is not confirmed. Such stars were proposed as an explanation for very bright O type stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud, but these are now known to be clusters of ordinary O stars. → very massive star; → massive star.

supermassive; → star.


Fr.: super lune   

Same as → perigee full Moon.

super-; → moon.


Fr.: supermultiplet   

A generalization of the concept of multiplet to the case when there are several quantum numbers that describe the quantum-mechanical states.

super-; multiplet.


Fr.: supernaturel   

1) Of, pertaining to, or being above or beyond what is natural; unexplainable by natural; abnormal.
2) Of, pertaining to, characteristic of, or attributed to God or a deity (

super-; → natural.

  ابر-زاستارگرایی، ابر-زاستارباوری   
abar-zâstâr-gerâyi, abar-zâstâr-bâvari

Fr.: supernaturalisme   

Belief in the doctrine of supernatural or divine agency as manifested in the world, in human events, religious revelation, etc. (

super-; → naturalism.


Fr.: supernova   

A violent stellar explosion which blows off all or most of the star's material at high velocity leaving a compact stellar remnant such as a neutron star or black hole. At maximum light, the supernova can have luminosity about 108 or 109 times that of the Sun. The phenomenon results from the later evolution of stars when an instability sets in the core following the nucleosynthesis of iron. In massive stars, the supernova occurs when the star has used up all its available nuclear fuel and it reaches a lower energy state through gravitational collapse to form a more compact star. In white dwarf stars in binary systems, accretion of mass onto the surface of a neutron star can be sufficient to take the star over the upper mass limit for stability as a white dwarf and it collapses to form a neutron star resulting in a → supernova explosion. See also → supernova types.

super-; → nove.

supernova candidate
  نامزد ِ اَبَر-نو‌اختر   
nâmzad-e abar-now-axtar

Fr.: candidat supernova   

A star which according to observational data could become a supernova.

supernova; → candidate.

supernova ejecta
  اشاناک ِ اَبَر-نو‌اختر   
ešânâk-e abar-now-axtar

Fr.: éjecta de supernova   

The material ejected by a → supernova explosion.

supernova; → ejecta.

supernova energy
  کاروژ ِ اَبَر-نو‌اختر   
kâruž-e abar-now-axtar

Fr.: énergie de supernova   

The total amount of energy liberated by a → supernova. A typical supernova radiates between 1051 and 1052  → erg, or 1044-45 J (→ joules).

supernova; → energy.

supernova explosion
  اُسکفت ِ اَبَر-نو‌اختر   
oskaft-e abar-now-axtar

Fr.: explosion de supernova   

The very short and violent phenomenon that occurs when a star undergoes → core collapse or → thermonuclear runaway.

supernova; → explosion.

supernova feedback
  بازخورد ِ ابر-نو-اختر   
bâzxord-e abar-now-axtar

Fr.: rétroaction des supenovae   

1) The process whereby the energy and matter contained in a → supernova are injected into the → interstellar medium after the → supernova explosion. The → thermal energy injected into the ISM serves to → suppress → star formation, while → heavy elements → nucleosynthesized inside SNe tend to enhance star formation.
2) The matter thus injected.

supernova; → feedback.

supernova impostor
  ابر-نو-اختر ِ دغلکار   
abar-now-axtar-e daqalkâr

Fr.: supernova imposteuse   

A brilliant burst of light that would suggest a → supernova explosion, but analysis of the star's → light curve, → spectrum, and → luminosity rules it out as a genuine supernova. Energetic → outbursts of → massive stars are often labeled as "supernova impostors" (Van Dyk et al. 2000). Many of these giant eruptions are spectroscopically similar to → Type II-n supernovae and thus receive a supernova (SN) designation, but are later recognized as subluminous or their spectra and light curves do not develop like true supernovae. Consequently, they are often referred to as "supernova impostors." These impostors or giant eruptions are examples of high → mass loss episodes apparently from evolved massive stars. Authors often refer to them as → Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs), but these giant eruptions are distinctly different from LBV/→ S Doradus variability in which the star does not increase in luminosity and the eruption or maximum light can last for several years. The mechanisms triggering these events are not yet fully understood (see, e.g., Humphreys et al., 2016, arXiv:1606.04959v1).

supernova; → impostor.

supernova progenitor
  زادار ِ اَبَر-نو‌اختر   
zâdâr-e abar-now-axtar

Fr.: progéniteur de supernova   

A star which is at the origin of a supernova phenomenon.

supernova; → progenitor.

supernova remnant (SNR)
  بازمانده‌ی ِ اَبَر-نو‌اختر   
bâzmânde-ye abar-now-axt

Fr.: reste de supernova   

The body of expanding gas ejected at a speed of about 10,000 km s-1 by a → supernova explosion, observed as a diffuse → gaseous nebula, often with a → shell-like structure. Supernova remnants are generally powerful → radio sources. The evolution of the SNR can be divided into different phases according to the dominant physical processes. Simplified models are made for the first stages, to get an idea of typical time scales, expansion velocities, and sizes. The three main phases are: 1) the → free expansion phase, 2) the → Sedov-Taylor phase, and 3) the → snowplow phase.

supernova; → remnant.

supernova shock
  شوک ِ ابر-نوختر، تش ِ ~   
šok de abar-now-axtar, toš-e ~

Fr.: choc de supernova   

A → shock wave that forms when the inner → iron core (of ~ 0.5 Msun) → collapses until it reaches densities in excess of → nuclear density. At this point the pressure rises dramatically and resists further collapse. The homologous core bounces and drives out a shock wave that works its way through the remainder of the initial iron core. The small compressibility of nuclear matter halts the infall of the innermost core by an elastic collective bounce whose kinetic energy is almost immediately depleted by the → photodisintegration of heavy nuclei and the emission of → neutrinos.

supernova; → shock.

supernova types
  گونه‌های ِ اَبَر-نو‌اختر   
gunehâ-ye abar-now-axtar

Fr.: types de supernova   

The classification of supernovae according to the presence or absence of the absorption lines of different chemical elements that appear in their spectra shortly after their explosion. Basically, supernovae come in two main types: those that have hydrogen (Type II, from a very massive star that blows up) and those that do not (Type I, due to thermonuclear runaways in a less massive star). Both types exhibit a wide variety of subclasses. Type Ia lacks hydrogen and presents a singly-ionized silicon (Si II) line at 6150 Å, near peak light. Type Ib has non-ionized helium (He I) line at 5876 Å, and no strong silicon absorption feature near 6150 Å. Type Ic shows weak or no helium lines and no strong silicon absorption feature near 6150 Å. Type II stars also have various subclasses. See also → Type I supernova, → Type Ia supernova, → Type Ib supernova, → Type Ic supernova, → Type II supernova, → Type II-L supernova, → Type II-n supernova, and → Type II-P supernova

supernova; → type.

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