An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1279
shower meteor
  شهاب ِ رگباری   
šahâb-e ragbâri

Fr.: averse météoritique   

A meteor that is part of a group moving in the same orbit around the Sun.

meteor; → shower.

shutter
  بستار   
bastâr (#)

Fr.: obturateur   

1) A pair of rolling lids that are used to open or close the dome slit. Same as → dome shutter.
2) A mechanical device that controls the time during which light is admitted in an optical system.

Shutter, from shut (v.), from O.E. scyttan from W.Gmc. *skutjanan + → -er.

Bastâr, from bast, past tense stem of bastan + -âr. Bastan, from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind, → band. The suffix -âr creates agent nouns (as in xaridâr, virâstâr, foruxtâr, nemudâr, etc.).

SI system
  راژمان ِ SI   
râžmân-e SI

Fr.: système international   

The system of → SI units.

SI units.

SI units
  یکاهای ِ SI   
yekâhâ-ye SI

Fr.: Système International   

A coherent and rationalized system of units, in common use in physics since 1969. The seven basic units are the → meter, the → kilogram, the → second, the → ampere, the → kelvin, the → mole, and the → candela. Same as international system of units.

SI, from Fr. Système Internationale d'unités; → unit.

sickle
  داس   
dâs (#)

Fr.: faucille   

1) An implement for cutting grain, grass, etc., consisting of a curved, hook-like blade mounted in a short handle (Dictionary.com).
2) Astro.: (initial capital letter) The six bright stars that mark the lion's head and chest in the → Leo constellation.

M.E. sikel, O.E. sicol; cf. Du. zikkel, Ger. Sichel, from L. secula, from sec(are) "to cut," → section, + -ula, → -ule.

Dâs, from Mid.Pers. dâs "sickle," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *das- "to heap; arrange;" cf. Av. spra.dāta- "heaped up with good things;" related to Pers. dasté "group,", andâzé, → measure, hendesé, → geometry.

side
  بر، پهلو، کنار   
bar (#), pahku (#), kenâr (#)

Fr.: côté   

1) A line segment that forms part of the perimeter of a plane geometric figure.
2) A surface of a solid geometric figure.

M.E., from O.E. side "flanks of a person, the long part of anything;" cf. O.S. sida, O.N. sitha, M.Du. side, O.H.G. sita, Ger. Seite.

Bar "side; breadth; breast," variant var; Mid.Pers. var "breast;" Av. vouru "wide, broad, extended" (vourucašāni- "looking far"), related to varah- "breast;" cf. Skt. urú- "wide, broad," úras- "breast;" Gk. eurus "wide, broad;" PIE base uer-, ueru-s "wide, broad."
Pahlu "side, flank;" Mid.Pers. pahlug "side, rib," Av. pərəsu- "rib," Ossetic fars "side, flank," cf. Skt. párśu- "rib," O.C.S. prbsi "breast," Lit. piršys (pl.) "horse breast."
Kenâr "side," variant karân "edge, limit;" Mid.Pers. karân, karânak, kenâr "edge, limit, boundary;" Av. karana- "side, boundary, end."
octagon, → polygon, → quadrilateral, → triangle.

side lobe
  لپ ِ کناری   
lap-e kenâri

Fr.: lobe secondaire   

1) In → radio astronomy, smaller amounts of gain found either side of the main lobe.
2) In transmitting antennae, radiation in any direction other than that required.

side; → lobe.

sideband
  باند ِ کناری، کنار-باند   
bând-e kenâri, kenâr-bând

Fr.: bande latérale   

Either of the two bands of frequencies, one just above (upper side) and one just below (lower side) a carrier frequency, that result from modulation of a carrier wave.

side; → band.

Bând, → band; kenâr "side," variant karân "edge, limit;" Mid.Pers. karân, karânak, kenâr "edge, limit, boundary;" Av. karana- "side, boundary, end."

sidereal
  اختری   
axtari (#)

Fr.: sidéral   

Of, relating to, or determined by or from stars.

From M.Fr. sidereal, from L. sidereus "starry, astral," from sidus (genitive sideris) "star, constellation."

Axtari, pertaining to axtar "star," probably a variant of setâréstar.

sidereal day
  روز ِ اختری   
ruz-e axtari (#)

Fr.: jour sidéral   

The period of → Earth's rotation around its axis, the mean value of which is about 23h 56m 04.092s (23.934 470 hours). In other words, the interval between two successive passages of a star across a given → meridian. The sidereal day is 3 minutes 56 seconds shorter than the → mean solar day. The reason is that Earth moves a little less than a degree around the Sun during the time it takes for one full axial rotation. So, for the Sun to appear on the same meridian in the sky again after one full axial rotation, the Earth has to rotate one extra degree to bring the Sun into the same apparent meridian in the sky. This is also why the stars rise and set about 4 min earlier each day.

sidereal; → day.

sidereal hour angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ ساعتی ِ اختری   
zâviye-ye sâ'ati-ye axtari (#)

Fr.: angle horaire   

The angle on the celestial sphere measured westward from the hour circle of the vernal equinox to that of the celestial body.

sidereal; → hour angle.

sidereal month
  ماه ِ اختری   
mâh-e axtari (#)

Fr.: mois sidéral   

The time taken by the Moon to complete one revolution around the Earth with respect to a fixed, background star. The average time is 27.321 661 days (27d 7h 43m 11.5s).

sidereal; → month.

sidereal period
  دوره‌ی ِ اختری   
dowre-ye axtari (#)

Fr.: période sidérale   

sidereal revolution period; → sidereal rotation period.

sidereal; → period.

sidereal revolution period
  دوره‌ی ِ گردش ِ اختری   
dowre-ye gardeš-e axtari (#)

Fr.: période de révolution sidérale   

The time taken by a planet or satellite to complete one revolution about its primary with respect to stars. For Earth, same as → sidereal year.

sidereal; → revolution; → period.

sidereal rotation period
  دوره‌ی ِ چرخش ِ اختری   
dowre-ye carxeš-e axtari

Fr.: période de rotation sidérale   

The rotation period of a celestial body with respect to fixed stars. For Earth, same as → sidereal day.

sidereal; → rotation; → period.

sidereal time
  زمان ِ اختری   
zamân-e axtari (#)

Fr.: temps sidéral   

The time based upon → Earth's rotation with respect to the stars, with the → sidereal day as the unit of measurement. At the moment when the → vernal equinox crosses the → meridian in → upper culmination, sidereal time is equal to zero hours for that observing position. The → hour angle of the vernal equinox is equal to sidereal time.

sidereal; → time.

sidereal year
  سال ِ اختری   
sâl-e axtari (#)

Fr.: année sidérale   

The interval between two successive passages of the Sun, in its apparent → annual motion around the → celestial sphere, through a particular point relative to stars. It is equal to 365.256356 days for the J2000.0 epoch and is 20m 24.5s longer than the → tropical year.

sidereal; → year.

siderite
  سیدریت   
siderit (#)

Fr.: sidérite   

1) A mineral composed of iron carbonate, FeCO3, that is a valuable ore of → iron.
2) A category of → meteorites consisting mainly of → iron and → nickel, commonly referred to as Irons. There are 13 different chemical groups of siderites. These groups are defined based on the relative abundance of nickel, gallium, germanium, and iridium. Irons are also categorized by their structural type.

From Gk. sider- variant of sidero- before a vowel, from sideros "iron" + -ite a suffix with several senses, specifically some minerals or chemical compounds.

siderolite
  سیدرولیت   
siderolit (#)

Fr.: sidérolithe, sidérolite   

The category of → meteorites commonly referred to as → stony-irons. The three classes of siderolites are → lodranites, → mesosiderites, and → pallasites.

From Gk. sidero-, from sideros "iron" + -lite a combining form used in the names of minerals.

siderophile
  آهندوست   
âhandust

Fr.: sidérophile   

Any → chemical element that prefers to combine with → iron rather than some other element.

From Gk. sidero-, from sideros "iron" + → -phile.

Âhandust, from âhan, → iron, + -dust, → -phile.

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