An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1286
secondary mirror
  آینه‌ی ِ دومان   
âyene-ye dovomân

Fr.: miroir secondaire   

The second reflecting surface in a → reflecting telescope. It directs the light either out a side opening of the tube (→ Newtonian telescope) or back toward a → focal point behind and through the → primary mirror (→ Cassegrain telescope). The secondary is usually suspended in the beam and therefore obstructs part of the primary.

secondary; → mirror.

secondary rainbow
  رنگین‌کمان ِ دومان   
rangin-kamân-e dovomân

Fr.: arc-en-ciel secondaire   

A fainter rainbow appearing about 10° above the → primary rainbow, as viewed by the observer. The secondary rainbow is about twice as wide, and has its colors reversed.

secondary; → rainbow.

secondary star
  ستاره‌ی ِ دومان   
setâre-ye dovomân

Fr.: étoile secondaire   

In a → binary system, the star that revolves around the more massive → primary component.

secondary; → star.

secret
  راز   
râz (#)

Fr.: secret   

1) Something that is or is kept secret, hidden, or concealed; a → mystery.
2) Done, made, or conducted without the knowledge of others (Dictionary.com).

From L. secretus "set apart, withdrawn; hidden, concealed," p.p. of secernere "to set apart, part, divide; exclude," from se- "without, apart," properly "on one's own" + cernere "to separate," → crisis.

Râz, from Mid.Pers. râz "secret, mystery;" cognate with Mod.Pers. rastan/rah- "to escape, be liberated;" O.Pers. (+*aua-) avarad- "to leave, abandon;" cf. Skt. rah- "to be lost, be lonely," rahas- "loneliness, privacy; a secret, mystery" (Cheung 2007).

secretariat
  دبیرخانه   
dabirxâné (#)

Fr.: secrétariat   

The officials or office entrusted with administrative duties, maintaining records, and overseeing or performing secretarial duties, especially for an international organization (Dictionary.com).

From Fr. secrétariat, from M.L. secretariatus, from secretarius, → secretary.

Dabirxâné, literally "house of secretaries," from dabir, → secretary, + xâné, → house.

secretary
  دبیر   
dabir (#)

Fr.: secrétaire   

A person, usually an official, who is in charge of the records, correspondence, minutes of meetings, and related affairs of an organization, company, association, etc. (Dictionary.com).

M.E. secretarie "one trusted with private or secret matters; confidant," from M.L. secretarius "confidential officer, confidant, clerk, notary," from L. secretum "a secret, a hidden thing."

Dabir, from Mid.Pers. dipîr, contraction of dipîvar (Mid.Pers. dip, dīp "document;" dīb "letter"); from O.Pers., from Proto-Ir. *dipī-uara- "he who preserves the documents;" cf. O.Pers. dipī- "inscription" + *Huar- "to cover;" cf. Av. vār- "to cover, hide, protect."

secretary-general
  دبیر-هروین   
dabir-harvain

Fr.: secrétaire général   

The head or chief administrative officer of a secretariat.

secretary; → general.

section
  سکنج   
sekanj (#)

Fr.: section   

A part that is cut off or separated.
A distinct part or subdivision of anything. → cross section; → intersection

From M.Fr. section, from L. sectionem "a cutting, division," from secare "to cut;" PIE base *sek- "cut" (cf. O.C.S. seko, sesti "to cut," Lith. isekti "to engrave, carve;" O.S. segasna, O.E. sigðe "scythe;" O.E. secg "sword," seax "knife, short sword").

Sekanj "a scraping, shaving, cutting," cognate with Pers. šekast-, šekastan "to break;" Av. skand- "to break," Skt. khand- "to break," khanda- "piece;" Pers. dialect Tabari šag "a special razor used to make incisions in the walls of unripe opium poppies in order to extract the milky sap," may be related to PIE *sek- "cut," as above.

secular
  ۱) دیریاز؛ ۲) گیانه، گیانی؛ گیان‌باور   
1) diryâz; 2) a), b) giyâné, giyâni; c) giyânbâvar

Fr.: 1) séculaire; 2) laïc   

1a) General: Going on from age to age; continuing through long ages.
1b) Astro.: Gradual or taking place over a long period. → secular acceleration; → secular change.
2a) (adj.) Worldly or material rather than spiritual.
2b) (adj.) Not overtly or specifically relating to religion or to a religious body.
2c) (adj. & n.) Relating to or advocating secularism; a layperson.

Secular from O.Fr. seculer, from L.L. sæcularis "of an age, occurring once in an age," from sæculum "age, span of time, generation, the spirit of the age."

1) Diryâz "long lasting, from dir "slowly, tardily; late" (Mid.Pers. dêr, variants dagr, drâz "long;" (Mod.Pers. derâz "long," variant Laki, Kurdi derež); O.Pers. darga- "long;" Av. darəga-, darəγa- "long," drājištəm "longest;" cf. Skt. dirghá- "long (in space and time);" L. longus "long;" Gk. dolikhos "elongated;" O.H.G., Ger. lang; Goth. laggs "long;" PIE base *dlonghos- "long") + yâz present stem of yâzidan "to stretch out the arms; grow up" (Parthian Mid.Pers. y'd "to reach a goal, come to, stretch out;" Av. yat- to reach, take one's place," yaiiata "places," frā-iiatāt "has reached;" cf. Skt. yat- "to be in place, put in place, line up;" PIE base *iet- "to be in place").
2) Giyâné, giyâni from giyân, variant of Mod.Pers. jahân, keyhân, geyhân "world," giti "world, material world, time," Mid.Pers. gêhân "world," gêtig "the material world; wordly," Manichean Mid.Pers. gyh "world," gyh'n "worlds;" Av. gaē&thetaā- "being, world, matter, mankind," gaya- "life, manner of living", root gay- "to live" (present tense jiva-), O.Pers. gaiθā- "live-stock," cognate with Skt. jīv- "to live," jīva- "alive, living;" Gk. bios "life," L. vivus "living, alive," vita "life;" PIE base *gwei- "to live" (cf. O.E. cwic "alive;" O.C.S. zivo "to live;" Lith. gyvas "living, alive;" O.Ir. bethu "life," bith "age, life, world;" Welsh byd "world"). The Pers. words zistan "to live," zendé "alive," zendegi "life," and jân "vital spirit, soul; mind" belong to this family.

secular aberration
  بیراهش ِ دیریاز   
birâheš-e diryâz

Fr.: aberration séculaire   

The smallest component of the aberration of starlight which is caused by the motion of the solar system through space. → annual aberration; → diurnal aberration.

secular; → aberration.

secular acceleration
  شتاب ِ دیریاز   
šetâb-e diryâz

Fr.: accélération séculaire   

The apparent gradual increase in the → Moon's motion in its orbit, as measured relative to → mean solar time. Secular acceleration corresponds to an extremely gradual reduction in the speed of the → Earth's rotation. The slow-down of the Earth's spin comes mainly from → tidal frictions from the Moon. Historically, Edmond Halley (1656-1742) was the first to suggest that the Moon's mean rate of motion relative to the stars was gradually increasing. In 1693, Halley compared eclipses of recent, medieval, and classical Babylonian time, and discovered that the Moon's mean motion had been gradually increasing. Using Lunar Laser Ranging measurement, based on laser reflectors left by the Apollo astronauts on the Moon's surface (1969 to 1972), the secular acceleration is derived to be -25".4 ± 0".1 century 2 (Xu Huaguan et al., 1996, in Earth, Moon and Planets 73, 101). This corresponds to a linear increase of about 3.5 cm yr-1 in the mean Earth-Moon distance.

secular; → acceleration.

secular change
  دگرشد ِ دیریاز، دگرش ِ ~   
degaršod-e diryâz, degareš-e ~

Fr.: changement séculaire   

A continuous, non-periodic change in one of the attributes of the states of a system. Often, a change in an orbit due to dissipation of energy. See also → canonical change.

secular; → change.

secular instability
  ناپایداری ِ دیریاز   
nâpâydâri-ye diryâz

Fr.: instabilité séculaire   

Instability caused by a slow dissipation of energy.

secular; → instability.

secular parallax
  دیدگشت ِ دیریاز   
didgašt-e diryâz

Fr.: parallaxe séculaire   

The angle subtended at a star by a baseline that is the distance the Sun moves in a given interval of time with respect to the local standard of rest (4.09 AU per year).

secular; → parallax.

secular perturbation
  پرتورش ِ دیریاز   
partureš-e diryâz

Fr.: perturbation séculaire   

A variation of planetary orbital elements which is always in the same direction as time increases.

secular; → perturbation.

secular stability
  پایداری ِ دیریاز   
pâydâri-ye diryâz

Fr.: stabilité séculaire   

1) The condition in which the equilibrium configuration of a system is stable over long periods of time.
2) The condition of a star when it is stable against arbitrary adiabatic perturbations.

secular; → stability.

secular term
  ترم ِ دیریاز   
tarm-e diryâz

Fr.: terme séculaire   

In perturbation theory used in celestial mechanics, a steadily increasing disturbance. → periodic term.

secular; → term.

secular variation
  ورتش ِ دیریاز   
varteš-e diryâz

Fr.: variation séculaire   

Same as → secular perturbation.

secular; → variation.

secularism
  گیان‌باوری   
giyânbâvari

Fr.: laïcité   

The view that religious considerations should be excluded from civil affairs or public education.

secular.

secularization
  گیانش   
giyâneš

Fr.: laïcisation   

The process of organizing society or aspects of social life around non-religious values or principles.

Verbal noun of secularize "giyânidan" (گیانیدن); → secular

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