An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1281
space charge
  بار ِ فضایی   
bâr-e fazâyi (#)

Fr.: charge d'espace   

Electricity: An electric charge belonging to a cloud of electrons lying between a cathode and plate within an electric tube.
Geophysics: An excess of either negatively or positively charged ions in a layer of the atmosphere, giving that layer either a negative or positive charge.

space; → charge.

space debris
  تیفال ِ فضایی   
tifâl-e fazâyi

Fr.: débris spatial   

Man-made objects in orbit around the Earth that no longer serve any useful purpose. The estimated number of debris include about 22,000 tractable objects larger than 10 cm in all orbits, of which 2,200 are dead satellites and last stages of the rocket that put them in orbit. There are also left-overs from spacecraft and mission operations, such as bolts, lens caps, clamp bands, auxiliary motors, etc. The debris presents a threat because of their high speeds, which ranges between 15 and 20 km/sec. Also called space junk, space waste, orbital debris.

space; → debris.

space flight
  پرواز ِ فضایی   
parvâz-e fazâyi

Fr.: vol spatial   

A travel outside the Earth by manned or unmanned vehicle requiring space technology.

space; → flight.

space group
  گروه ِ فضایی   
goruh-e fazâyi

Fr.: groupe d'espace   

Set of operations (rotation about an axis, reflection across a plane, translation, or combination of these) which when carried out on a periodic arrangement of points in space brings the system of points to self-coincidence.

The word group comes from the mathematical notion of a group.

space mission
  گسیلان ِ فضایی   
gosilân-e fazâyi

Fr.: mission spatiale   

A manned or unmanned space flight outside the Earth's atmosphere.

space; mission, from L. missionem (nominative missio) "act of sending," from mittere "to send," of unknown origin.

Gosilân, from gosil, variant gosi "sending away, dismission;" Mid.Pers. wisé "to despatch" (Parthian Mid.Pers. wsys- "to despatch;" Buddhist Mid.Pers. wsydy "to despatch;" Sogdian 'ns'yd- "to exhort"), from Proto-Iranian *vi-sid- "to despatch, send off," from prefix vi- "apart, away, out," + *sid- "to call" + -ân nuance suffix; fazâyi adj. of fazâ, → space.

space motion
  جنبش ِ فضایی   
jonbeš-e fazâyi

Fr.: mouvement spatial   

The velocity and direction of motion of a star or celestial object with respect to the Local Standard of Rest. Same as → peculiar velocity.

space; → motion.

space probe
  گمانه‌ی ِ فضایی   
gomâne-ye fazâyi

Fr.: sonde spatiale   

A spacecraft carrying instruments intended for use in exploration of the physical properties of outer space or celestial bodies other than Earth.

space; → probe.

space shuttle
  ناوک ِ فضایی   
nâvak-e fazâyi

Fr.: navette spatiale   

A reusable space vehicle designed to travel between the Earth and an orbiting space station for specific missions (carrying a crew and a cargo deploying and retrieving satellites) and then to return.

space; M.E. shotil (n.); O.E. scytel "a dart, arrow;" cf. O.N. skutill "harpoon;" akin to shut, shoot.

Nâvak "small ship; ship like," from nâv "ship" (O.Pers./Av. *nāv-, O.Pers. nāviyā- "fleet;" cf. Skt. nau-, nava- "ship, boat;" Gk. naus "ship;" L. nauticus "pertaining to ships or sailors") + -ak diminutive/similarity suffix. Nâvak also means "a small arrow, an arrow flying swift," which may have a different origin.

Space Situational Awareness (SSA)
  آگاهی از سیتش ِ فضایی   
âgâhi az siteš-e fazâyi

Fr.: surveillance de l'environnement spatial   

A program aimed at monitoring the near-Earth environment for recognizing and preventing space hazards by means of radar and optical observations from either space or the ground. The objective of the → European Space Agency initiative is to support the European independent utilisation of, and access to, space for research or services, through the provision of timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge regarding the space environment, the threats and the sustainable exploitation of the outer space surrounding our planet Earth. The SSA program was formally launched on 1 January 2009. After an initial three-year period, full operational services will be implemented in 2012-19 upon approval. The program comprises three segments: 1) Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST), which is the monitoring and tracking of every object orbiting the Earth, such as satellites, space stations and debris. The objective is the prediction and warning of collisions and re-entry events. 2) → Space Weather (SWE), which aims at detection and forecasting of space weather and its effects through monitoring of the Sun, solar wind, magnetosphere, radiation belts, ionosphere and disturbances in the geomagnetic field. 3) → Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), which provides warning services against potential asteroid impact risks, including discovery, identification, orbit prediction and civil alert capabilities.

space; → situation; → -al; → awareness.

space station
  ایستگاه ِ فضایی   
istgâh-e fazâyi

Fr.: station spatiale   

A large satellite equipped to support a human crew and designed to remain in orbit around Earth for an extended period and be used for a variety of purposes (conducting research, repairing satellites, performing other space-related activities).

space; → station.

space technology
  تشنیک‌شناسی ِ فضایی، فناوری ِ ~   
tašnikšenâsi-ye fazâyi, fanâvari-ye ~

Fr.: technologie spatiale   

The systematic application of science, technology, and engineering to the exploration and utilization of outer space.

space; → technology.

space telescope
  تلسکوپ ِ فضایی   
teleskop-e fazâyi (#)

Fr.: télescope spatial   

A telescope which is placed in an orbit around the → Earth and operates through commands from sent from the control center on Earth, such as → Hubble space telescope, → Herschel satellite, → Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), → Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), → International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), → Planck Satellaite , → Spitzer Space Telescope.

space; → telescope.

space velocity
  تندای ِ فضایی   
tondâ-ye fazây

Fr.: vitesse spatiale   

The velocity of a star relative to the Sun.

space; → velocity.

space weather
  هواشناسی ِ فضا   
havâšenâsi-ye fazâ

Fr.: météorologie de l'espace   

The varying conditions in space and specifically in the near-Earth environment. Space weather is chiefly solar driven, resulting from solar activities such as → solar flares, → solar wind, and → coronal mass ejections that affect → magnetosphere, → ionosphere, and → thermosphere. Non-solar sources such as Galactic → cosmic rays, → meteoroids, and → space debris can all be considered as altering space weather conditions at the Earth. Space weather may affect the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and can endanger human life or health. The research in this field aims at monitoring and diagnosis of space weather conditions and constructing reliable numerical prediction models. See also → Space Situational Awareness.

space; → weather; → meteorology.

space weathering
  سایند ِ فضایی   
sâyand-e fazâyi

Fr.: altération spatiale   

The slight erosion of Solar System bodies (planets, moons, asteroids) caused by the → solar wind, → cosmic rays, and → micrometeorite bombardments. Space weathering affects the physical and optical properties of the surfaces of these bodies. Understanding this process is therefore important for the interpretation of remotely obtained spectral data, such as space probe photographs of outer Solar System moons.

space; → weathering.

fazâ-zamân (#)

Fr.: espace-temps   

A physical entity resulting from the union of space and time concepts. In its most simple version space-time is the four-dimensional continuum, having three spatial coordinates and one temporal coordinate, in which any → event or physical object is located. In → special relativity it is Minkowski's flat space-time. In → general relativity, it is described by a curved entity characterized by a → metric. Free-fall motion describes the → geodesic of this curved space-time. It may have additional dimensions in the context of speculative theories, such as → string theory.

space; → time.

space-time diagram
  نمودار ِ فضا-زمان   
nemudâr-e fazâ-zamân (#)

Fr.: diagramme espace-temps   

A simple way of representing the → space-time continuum, usually including time and only one spatial dimension. The curve of a particle's equation of motion on a space-time diagram is called a → world line. Same as → Minkowski diagram.

space; → time; → diagram.

space-time interval
  اندروار ِ فضا-زمان   
andarvâr-e fazâ-zamân

Fr.: intervalle espace-temps   

1) In Einstein's → theory of relativity, ds2 = c2dt2 - dx2 - dy2 - dz2.
2) In → Newtonian mechanics, time interval: dt; space interval at fixed time: dl2 = dx2 + dy2 + dz2.

space-time; → interval.

fazânâv (#)

Fr.: vaisseau spatial   

A vehicle designed to travel or operate, with or without a → crew, in a controlled → flight pattern in space beyond the Earth's atmosphere or in → orbit around the Earth. Also called spaceship.

space; → craft.


Fr.: genre espace   

Of, pertaining to, or describing an → event being outside the → light cone.

space; → like.

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