An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1281
Spitzer Space Telescope
  دوربین ِ فضایی ِ اسپیتزر، تلسکوپ ِ ~ ~   
durbin-e fazâyi-ye Spitzer, teleskop-e ~ ~

Fr.: Télescope spatial Spitzer   

An infrared telescope launched by NASA on 25 August 2003, the last in the series of Great Observatories. It was placed into a heliocentric orbit with a period of revolution that causes it to drift away from Earth at a rate of 0.1 → astronomical unit per year. Spitzer has a 85-cm primary mirror, made of beryllium and is equipped with three cryogenically-cooled science instruments: 1) IRAC (Infrared Array Camera), which operates simultaneously on four wavelengths (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 µm); 2) IRS (Infrared Spectrograph), with four sub-modules which operate at the wavelengths 5.3-14 µm (low resolution), 10-19.5 µm (high resolution), 14-40 µm (low resolution), and 19-37 µm (high resolution); and 3) MIPS (Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer), three detector arrays in the → far infrared at 24, 70, and 160 µm. So far Spitzer has obtained precious data on all sorts of astronomical objects, thus contributing to all fields of astrophysics. It has also performed two sky surveys: GLIMPS, which covers 300° of the inner Milky Way galaxy, consisting of approximately 444,000 images taken at 4 separate wavelengths with the IRAC, and MIPSGAL a similar survey covering 278° of the Galactic disk at longer wavelengths.The planned nominal mission period was to be 2.5 years with a pre-launch expectation that the mission could extend to five or slightly more years until the onboard liquid helium supply was exhausted. This occurred on 15 May 2009. Without liquid helium to cool the telescope, most instruments are no longer usable. However, the two shortest wavelength modules of the IRAC camera are still operable and will continue to be used in the Spitzer Warm Mission.

Named in honor of Lyman Spitzer (1914-1997), an American theoretical physicist and astronomer best known for his research in star formation and plasma physics, who first suggested (1940s) placing telescopes in orbit to escape interference from the Earth's atmosphere; → space; → telescope.

spline function
  کریای ِ اسپلین   
karyâ-ye splin

Fr.: fonction spline   

A function consisting of several segments, usually → polynomials, joined smoothly together at specific points with an explicitly stated degree of accuracy. Spline functions are used to approximate a given function on an interval.

From East Anglian dialect, maybe related to O.E. splin and to modern splint. A spline was originally a slat or a thin strip of wood. A later meaning was "a long, thin, flexible strip used as a guide for drawing arcs of curves;" → function.

split
  ۱) فاق؛ ۲) فاقیدن   
1) fâq (#); 2) fâqidan

Fr.: 1) fente; 2) fendre   

1) A crack, tear, or fissure. The act of splitting.
2) To separate by cutting, chopping, etc.

From M.Du. splitten, from P.Gmc. *spl(e)it- (cf. Dan., Fris. splitte, O.Fris. splita, Ger. spleißen "to split").

1) Fâq "a part of something separated in two sections, such as a beard, a quill pen, etc."
2) Fâqidan verbal form.

splitting
  فاقش   
fâqeš

Fr.: fendre   

The act or instance of being split or causing something to split. → splitting of energy level.

Verbal noun of → split.

splitting of energy level
  فاقش ِ تراز ِ کاروژ   
fâqeš-e tarâz-e kâruž

Fr.: dédoublement d'un niveau d'énergie   

The splitting of a single atomic level into a group of closely spaced levels when the substance producing the single line is subjected to a uniform magnetic field. → Zeeman effect; → Stark effect.

spliting; → energy level.

spoke
  پره   
parré

Fr.:   

In Saturn's rings, changing structures in the radial direction. It is thought that gravitational forces alone cannot account for the spoke structure, and it has been proposed that electrostatic repulsion between ring particles may play a role.

M.E.; O.E. spaca "spoke," related to spicing "large nail," from P.Gmc. *spaikon (cf. O.S. speca, O.Fris. spake, Du. spaak, O.H.G. speicha, Ger. speiche "spoke").

Parré "a rod that extends from the hub of a wheel to support or brace the rim."

spontaneous
  سرخود   
sarxod (#)

Fr.: spontané   

Arising from internal forces or causes; independent of external agencies; self-acting.

From L.L. spontaneus "willing, of one's free will," from L. (sua) sponte "of one's own accord, willingly," of unknown origin.

Sarxod, literally "by himself/herself," from sar "head" (soru, sorun "horn;" karnâ "a trumpet-like wind instrument," variant sornâ "a wind instrument;" Mid.Pers. sar "head," sru "horn;" Av. sarah- "head," srū- "horn, nail;" cf. Skt. śiras- "head, chief;" Gk. kara "head," karena "head, top," keras "horn;" L. cornu "horn," cerebrum "brain;" P.Gmc. *khurnaz (Ger. Horn, Du. horen; cognate with E. horn, as above, from PIE *ker- "head, horn;" O.E. horn "horn of an animal," also "wind instrument;" E. horn); PIE base *ker- "head, horn, top, summit") + xod "self" (Mid.Pers. xwad "self; indeed;" Av. hva- "self, own").

spontaneous combustion
  سوزش ِ سرخود   
suzeš-e sarxod

Fr.: combustion spontanée   

The self-ignition of a substance that produces sufficient heat within itself, by a slow oxidation process, for ignition to take place without the need for an external high-temperature source. The produced heat energy is absorbed by the substance raising its temperature slowly until the → ignition temperature is reached. Same as spontaneous ignition.

spontaneous; → combustion.

spontaneous emission
  گسیل ِ سرخود   
gosil-e sarxod

Fr.: émission spontanée   

The emission of electromagnetic radiation from an atom or molecule that does not depend on the presence of external fields.

spontaneous; → emission.

spontaneous symmetry breaking
  شکست ِ سرخود ِ همامونی   
šekast-e sarxod-e hamâmuni

Fr.: brisure spontanée de symétrie   

A physical phenomenon whereby a symmetric system becomes permanently asymmetric. A simple example is a ball lying on top of a hill in equilibrium. The hill-ball system is symmetric about the vertical axis through the top of the hill. Moreover, there is no preferred horizontal direction to the system. However, its state is unstable, since the slightest perturbing force will cause the ball to roll down the hill in some particular direction. The system becomes permanently asymmetric because the ball will not roll uphill by itself. Symmetry breaking is found in several fields of physics, for example in → magnetism (→ ferromagnetism), → thermodynamics (→ crystallization), and → particle physics, where it constitutes the basis of → electroweak interactions. In cosmology, according to the → Big Bang model, the fundamental forces of the Universe split off from one another in a form of spontaneous symmetry braking. If a single, unified force existed with a certain symmetry just after the Big Bang, if that symmetry were somehow broken so that the unified force were fractured, then the result might be several fundamental forces. See also → grand unified theory, → theory of everything, → phase transition.

spontaneous; → symmetry; → break.

sporadic meteor
  شهاب ِ گهگاهی   
šahâb-e gahgâhi

Fr.: météore sporadique   

A meteor occurring occasionally, and not associated with any known meteor shower.

Sporadic, from M.L. sporadicus "scattered," from Gk. sporadikos "scattered," from sporas (genitive sporados) "scattered," from spora "seed, a sowing;" related to sporos "sowing," and speirein "to sow," from PIE *sper- "to strew;" → meteor.

Šahâb, → meteor; gahgâhi "from time to time," from gah, gâh "time; place" (Mid.Pers. gâh, gâs "time;" O.Pers. gāθu-; Av. gātav-, gātu- "place, throne, spot;" cf. Skt. gâtu- "going, motion; free space for moving; place of abode;" PIE *gwem- "to go, come").

Sporer minimum
  کمینه‌ی ِ اشپورر   
kamine-ye Spörer

Fr.: minimum de Spörer   

A period of low → solar activity that lasted from about A.D. 1420 to 1570. It occurred before → sunspots had been studied, and was discovered by analysis of the proportion of carbon-14 in tree rings, which is strongly correlated with solar activity.

Named for the German astronomer Gustav Spörer (1822-1895); → minimum.

Sporer's law
  قانون ِ اشپورر   
qânun-e Spörer

Fr.: loi de Spörer   

The empirical law that predicts the variation of → sunspot latitudes during a → solar cycle. At the start of a sunspot cycle, sunspots tend to appear around 30° to 45° latitude on the Sun's surface. As the cycle progresses, they appear at lower and lower latitudes, until 5° to 10°, at the end of the cycle. This tendency is revealed on a → butterfly diagram. Although named after Gustav Spörer, the "law" was first discovered by Richard Carrington.

Sporer minimum; → law.

spot
  لک، لکه   
lak (#), laké (#)

Fr.: tache   

M.E. spotte "a spot, blot, patch;" M.Du. spotte "spot, speck."

Lak(k), lak(k)é "spot, stain."

spring
  ۱) بهار؛ ۲) چشمه؛ ۳) فنر   
1) bahâr (#); 2) cešmé (#); 3) fanar (#)

Fr.: 1) printemps; 2) source; 3) ressort   

1) The season that starts when the Sun, during its apparent yearly motion, attains the celestial longitude 0 degree in the Northern Hemisphere and 180 degrees in the Southern Hemisphere. The current length of the spring season, around the year 2000, is about: spring 92.76 days.
2) A surface flow of groundwater which occurs any time the water table intersects the surface. Related concept → source = xan (خن).
3) An elastic device, usually a twisted piece of metal, that returns to its original shape when it is pressed or stretched, used chiefly to exert constant tension or absorb movement.

1) From the verb M.E. springen; O.E. springan "to leap, burst forth, fly up;" the notion is of the "spring of the year," when plants "spring up" cf. Du., Ger. springen.
2) Similarly from the verb, as above, M.E. spring(e); O.E. spring, spryng; cf. O.H.G., Dan., Sw. spring.
3) From the verb spring, as above.

1) Bahâr, from Mid.Pers. wahâr "spring;" O.Pers. vāhara- "spring time," θūra-vāhara- "name of a spring month;" Av. vaηhar "spring;" cf. Skt. vasara- "relating or appearing in the morning;" Gk. ear "spring;" L. uēr "spring," vernus "of spring;" O.N. vār "spring;" Lith. vasara "summer;" O.C.S. vesna "spring."
2) Cešmé "spring, source," from Mid.Pers. cašmag "spring, source," supposed to be related to cašm, cešmeye.
3) Fanar, from Turk fanâr.

spring constant
  پایای ِ فنر   
pâpâ-ye fanar

Fr.: constante de rappel du ressort   

A characteristic of a spring which is defined as the ratio of the force affecting the spring to the displacement caused by the force. In other words, the spring constant is the force applied if the displacement in the spring is unity. It is expressed by the equation k = -F/x (from → Hooke's law), where F = force applied, x = displacement by the spring. The spring constant is usually expressed in Newton per meter (N/m).

spring; → force.

spring tide
  مهکشند   
mehkešand (#)

Fr.: grande marée   

Tide that occurs when the → Earth, the → Sun, and the → Moon are in a line. This happens approximately twice a month, around → new moon and → full moon. In such a condition, known as → syzygy, the tidal force due to the Sun reinforces that due to the Moon. Spring tides have nothing to do with the season spring. The name derives from the meaning "a leap, jump, bound, rise."

Spring "a leap, jump, or bound;" M.E. springen, from spring O.E. springan "to leap, fly up; spread, grow;" cognates: O.N., O.Fris. springa, M.Du. springhen, O.H.G. springan, Ger. springen, from PIE *sprengh-, form *spergh- "to move, hasten, spring" (Skt. sprhayati "desires eagerly," Gk. sperkhesthai "to hurry."

Mehkešandak "high tide," from meh-, → high, + kešand, → tide.

sprinkle
  ۱) پشکیدن، پشکاندن؛ ۲) پشکه   
1) peškidan, peškândan; 2) pešké

Fr.: 1) asperger; 2) aspersion   

1) To scatter (a liquid, powder, etc.) in drops or particles.
2) The act or an instance of sprinkling.

M.E. sprenklen (v.); cognate with Du. sprenkelen, Ger. sprenkeln; O.E. sprengan "to sprinkle, make (something) spring, scatter."

Peškidan, from (Malâyeri, Hamedâni) peška "sprinkle, water drop," variant of (Dehxodâ) pašang "sprinkle," pešanjidan "to sprinkle, spray;" (dialects of Khorâsân, Bandar Abbâs, Kermân, Dari Kermân, Lâ) pešang "spraying;" ultimately from Proto-Ir. *pati-haic- from *haic- "to pour (out), moisten);" cf. Av. patihaēc- "to sprinkle all over, pour on;" Mid.Pers. pšnc-/paššinj- "to sprinkle;" related to Pers. xēs, xis, hēs "wet;" O.H.G. sīhan "to sift;" O.E. sēon "to flow away, to sift;" PIE root *seikw- "to pour" (Cheung 2007).

sprite
  فرفده   
farfadé

Fr.: farfadet   

A very brief, predominantly red, luminous glow, that occurs in the → mesosphere above → thunderstorms. Sprites have a lump of light on top and numerous tendrils descending downward. They can shoot about 90 to 95 km up into the atmosphere, reaching the → ionosphere, and extend 160 km across. Sprites are very difficult to see, and for that reason were not reliably recorded until 1989. See also → elve; → blue jet.

Sprite "elf, fairy, eerie, ghost-like quality," so named by D. Sentman et al. (1995, Geophys. Res. Let, 22, 1205) because of the fleeting nature of sprites; M.E., from O.Fr. esprit "spirit," from L. spiritus "soul, vigor, breath," related to spirare "to breathe."

Farfadé, from Fr. farfadet, of dialectal origin, derived from fado "fairy."

spur
  ۱، ۲، ۳، ۴، ۵) شخاک، ۱) مهمیز   
1, 2, 3, 4, 5) šaxâk, 1) mehmiz

Fr.: éperon   

1) A pointed device on the heel of a rider's boot used to urge on the horse.
2) A sharp horny part on the leg of some birds.
3) Geology: A lateral lower mountain ridge descending from the mountain or the main ridge crest.
4) Mining: A small vein branching from a main one.
5) → Orion Spur.

M.E. spur, from O.E. spura, spora "metal implement worn on the heel to goad a horse," akin to M.Du. spore, Du. spoor, O.H.G. sporo, Ger. Sporn "spur."

Šaxâk, from šax "hard ground, especially on the summit or at the skirt of a mountain; anything hard; a mountain," + noun/nuance suffix -âk.
Mehmiz "a spur, a goad," loan from Ar.

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