An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1286

Fr.: surnuméraire   

Exceeding the usual or prescribed number; extra; additional.

L.L. supernumarius "excess, counted in over" (of soldiers added to a full legion), from L. super numerum "beyond the number," → super- "beyond, over" + numerum, accusative of numerus, → number.

Faršomâr, from far- intensive prefix "much, abundant; elegantly;" also "above, upon, over; forward, along," → pro-, + šomâr, → number.

supernumerary rainbow
  رنگین‌کمان ِ فرشمار   
rangin-kamân-e faršomâr

Fr.: arc-en-ciel surnuméraire   

An additional faint arc or series of arcs just below the → primary rainbow. Supernumerary bows are caused by → interference and are more common toward the top of the bow.

supernumerary; → rainbow.


Fr.: superposition   

1) The act of placing upon; the state of being placed upon.
2) Math. The act of placing (one geometric figure) over another so that all like parts coincide.

super- + → position.

Barhamneheš, from bar- "on, upon, up" (Mid.Pers. abar; O.Pers. upariy "above; over, upon, according to;" Av. upairi "above, over," upairi.zəma- "located above the earth;" cf. Gk. hyper- "over, above;" L. super-; O.H.G. ubir "over;" PIE base *uper "over") + -ham- "together, with," → syn-, + neheš, → position.

superposition principle
  پروز ِ برهم‌نهش   
parvaz-e barhamneheš

Fr.: principe de superposition   

1) Math.: The principle concerned with homogeneous and non-homogeneous → linear differential equations, stating that two or more solutions to a linear equation or set of linear equations can be added together so that their sum is also a solution.
2) One of the most fundamental principles of → quantum mechanics which distinctly marks the departure from classical concepts. It holds that any linear superposition of → wave functions is also a possible wave function. Simply put, the state of an object is all its possible states simultaneously, as long as we do not look to check. It is the measurement itself that causes the object to be limited to a single possibility. The superposition principle is rooted in the linearity of → Schrödinger's equation. Hence if two solutions of the wave function, ψ1 and ψ2, are known, other solutions, of the form: ψ = a1ψ1 + a2ψ2 also represent possible states of the system.

superposition; → principle.


Fr.: super-saturation   

The process whereby the amount of → water vapor in the air exceeds that needed to → saturate. In other words, the condition of air in which the → humidity is above the level required for saturation at a given temperature (i.e. the → relative humidity is greater than 100%). When the temperature drops below freezing, this can lead to a situation where more water vapor is present in the air than the air can hold. At every temperature, there is a maximum amount of water vapor that can be supported in the air. The higher the temperature, the more water vapor can be accommodated. But if the air that is already at 100% relative humidity is cooled then it becomes supersaturated, and this situation is unstable. As a result, the excess water vapor crystallizes out, either into water droplets or directly into ice.

super-; → saturation.

zabarneveš (#)

Fr.: indice supérieur   

An → index (a digit or symbol) written slightly above and to the right of a letter, such as for representing variable components in → tensor analysis. → subscript. The most common mathematical superscript is an → exponent. Other common superscripts are the single and double prime marks indicating a first and second derivatives of a function. See also → contravariant tensor.

super- + script, → subscript.

Zabarneveš, from zabar- "above," → superior + nevešt "written," → subscript.


Fr.: supersonique   

Describing a speed that is greater than the → sound speed in the medium concerned. See also → Mach number, → subsonic.

super-; → sonic.


Fr.: supersymétrie   

A class of theories that seek to unify the four fundamental forces of nature. It proposes symmetrical relationships linking fermions and bosons (particles of half integer spin, like electrons, protons, and neutrinos) with particles of integral spin (like photons and gluons).

super; → symmetry.

superthin galaxy
  کهکشان ِ اَبَرنازک   
kahkešân-e abarnâzok

Fr.: galaxie supermince   

A galaxy that appears as an extraordinary thin and long figure on the sky because of its → edge-on orientation, highly flattened stellar → disk, and absence of a → bulge component. Superthin galaxies are → gas-rich and have optically diffuse disks with little internal absorption, as well as low emission-line intensity ratios and slowly rising → rotation curves. They seem to be among the least evolved disk galaxies in the local Universe, having undergone only minimal dynamical heating, → star formation, and → angular momentum transport. Examples are: UGC 7321, UGC 3697, UGC 9242.

super-; → thin; → galaxy.


Fr.: super-vent   

A galactic-scale wind driven by the collective effect of a large number of → supernovae and → winds from → massive stars occurring in the central region of a galaxy. Superwinds have been invoked, among other things, as the source by which the → intergalactic medium is provided with → enriched gas (see, e.g. Heckman et al. 1990, ApJS 74, 833).

super-; → wind.

superwind galaxy
  کهکشان ِ اَبَر-باد   
kahkešân-e abar-bâd

Fr.: galaxie à super-vent   

A galaxy with → superwind characteristics. M 82 and NGC 4666 are among superwind galaxy candidates.

superwind; → galaxy.

  ۱) آپره؛ ۲) آپریدن   
1) âporé; 2) âporidan

Fr.: supplément   

1a) A thing added to something else in order to complete, reinforce, or extend it.
1b) A separation section added to a book, document, etc., to supply additional or later information, or the like.
2a) To complete, add to, or extend by a supplement.
2b) To form a supplement or addition to.

From L. supplementum "that which fills up, that with which anything is made full or whole, something added to supply a deficiency," from supplere "to fill up, complete," from → sub- "up from below" + plere "to fill;" cognate with Pers. por, as below.

Âporidan, from prefix â- + por "full;" Mid.Pers. purr; O.Pers. paru- "much, many;" Av. parav-, pauru-, pouru-, from par- "to fill;" PIE *pelu- "full," from *pel- "to be full;" cf. Skt. puru-; Gk. polus; P.Gmc. *fullaz (O.H.G. fol, Ger. voll, Goth. full, O.E. full).

  آپرنده، آپره‌ای   
âporandé, âpore-yi

Fr.: supplémentaire   

Completing something or added as a supplement.

supplement; → -ary.

supplementary angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ آُپرنده   
zâviye-ye âporandé

Fr.: angle supplémentaire   

The angle that when added to a given angle makes 180°. → complementary angle.

supplementary; → angle.

  ۱) پادیر؛ ۲) پادیریدن   
1) pâdir; 2) pâdiridan

Fr.: 1) appui, soutien, support; 2) supporter, soutenir, être pour, appuyer   

1a) Something that serves as a foundation, prop, brace, or stay.
1b) The act or an instance of supporting.
2a) To bear or hold up (a load, mass, structure, part, etc.); serve as a foundation for.
2b) To uphold (a person, cause, policy, etc.) by aid, countenance, one's vote, etc.; back (

M.E. supporten, from M.Fr. supporter, from L. supportare "convey, carry, bring forward," from → sub- "up from under" + portare "to carry."

Pâdir "a column supporting a building; a post supporting a wall."

  انگاشتن، انگاریدن   
engâštan, engâridan (#)

Fr.: supposer   

1) To assume (something), as for the sake of argument or as part of a proposition or theory.
2) To consider (something) as a possibility suggested or an idea or plan proposed (

M.E. supposen, from O.Fr. supposer, from L. supponere "to put or place under," from → sub- "under" + ponere "to put, place," → position.

Engâštan, engâridan "to suppose," from Mid.Pers. (h)angârtan "to conside, to bear in mind, to regard as," from han, ham "together" → com- + kartan "to establish; to declare; to found;" Av. han-kârayeiti, from han-, ham- "together," + kar- "to remember; to impress on memory."


Fr.: supprimer   

1) To put down by authority or force.
2) To keep from public knowledge.
3) To restrain from a usual course or action. → suppression.

L. suppressus, p.p. of supprimere "to press down, stop, stifle," from → sub- "down, under" + premere "to press, push against," → express.

Nehâvidan, from ne-, → ni- "down, below," + hâvidan "to press," → express.


Fr.: suppression   

The act of suppressing; the state of being suppressed. → Compton suppression, → zero suppression.

suppress; → -tion.

  فراز، بالا، ابر-   
farâz, bâlâ, abar-

Fr.: supra-   

A prefix denoting "over, above, beyond, greater than."

From L. supra "above, over, before, beyond," → super-.

Farâz "above, up, upon," → height; bâlâ "above, up, high," → height; abar-, → super-.

supra-Eddington layer
  لایه‌ی ِ ابر-ادینگتونی   
lâye-ye abar-Eddingtoni

Fr.: couche super-eddingtonienne   

In some stellar models, particularly for evolved → massive stars, such as → red supergiants, → Luminous Blue Variables, and → Wolf-Rayet stars, an outermost layer of the stellar envelope where the luminosity might exceed the → Eddington limit. This is due to the → opacity peak produced by the variation in the ionization level of hydrogen in the outer → convective envelope, beneath the surface, of very luminous stars. The opacity peak generates supra-Eddington layers and density inversion. The high opacity decreases the Eddington luminosity in these layers, possibly to fainter levels than the actual stellar luminosity. As a result, the → radiative acceleration exceeds the → gravitational acceleration leading to → mass loss enhancement (see, e.g., A. Maeder, Physics, Formation and Evolution of Rotating Stars, Springer, 2009).

supra-; → Eddington limit; → layer.

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