An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1298
Space Situational Awareness (SSA)
  آگاهی از سیتش ِ فضایی   
âgâhi az siteš-e fazâyi

Fr.: surveillance de l'environnement spatial   

A program aimed at monitoring the near-Earth environment for recognizing and preventing space hazards by means of radar and optical observations from either space or the ground. The objective of the → European Space Agency initiative is to support the European independent utilization of, and access to, space for research or services, through the provision of timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge regarding the space environment, the threats and the sustainable exploitation of the outer space surrounding our planet Earth. The SSA Program was authorized at the November 2008 Ministerial Council and formally launched on 1 January 2009. The mandate was extended at the 2012 and 2016 Ministerial Councils, and the program is funded through to 2020. The program comprises three segments: 1) Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST), which is the monitoring and tracking of every object orbiting the Earth, such as satellites, space stations and debris. The objective is the prediction and warning of collisions and re-entry events. 2) → Space Weather (SWE), which aims at detection and forecasting of space weather and its effects through monitoring of the Sun, solar wind, magnetosphere, radiation belts, ionosphere and disturbances in the geomagnetic field. 3) → Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), which provides warning services against potential asteroid impact risks, including discovery, identification, orbit prediction and civil alert capabilities.

space; → situation; → -al; → awareness.

space station
  ایستگاه ِ فضایی   
istgâh-e fazâyi

Fr.: station spatiale   

A large satellite equipped to support a human crew and designed to remain in orbit around Earth for an extended period and be used for a variety of purposes (conducting research, repairing satellites, performing other space-related activities).

space; → station.

space technology
  تشنیک‌شناسی ِ فضایی، فناوری ِ ~   
tašnikšenâsi-ye fazâyi, fanâvari-ye ~

Fr.: technologie spatiale   

The systematic application of science, technology, and engineering to the exploration and utilization of outer space.

space; → technology.

space telescope
  تلسکوپ ِ فضایی   
teleskop-e fazâyi (#)

Fr.: télescope spatial   

A telescope which is placed in an orbit around the → Earth and operates through commands from sent from the control center on Earth, such as → Hubble space telescope, → Herschel satellite, → Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), → Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), → International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), → Planck Satellaite , → Spitzer Space Telescope.

space; → telescope.

space velocity
  تندای ِ فضایی   
tondâ-ye fazây

Fr.: vitesse spatiale   

The velocity of a star relative to the Sun.

space; → velocity.

space weather
  هواشناسی ِ فضا   
havâšenâsi-ye fazâ

Fr.: météorologie de l'espace   

The varying conditions in space and specifically in the near-Earth environment. Space weather is chiefly solar driven, resulting from solar activities such as → solar flares, → solar wind, and → coronal mass ejections that affect → magnetosphere, → ionosphere, and → thermosphere. Non-solar sources such as Galactic → cosmic rays, → meteoroids, and → space debris can all be considered as altering space weather conditions at the Earth. Space weather may affect the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and can endanger human life or health. The research in this field aims at monitoring and diagnosis of space weather conditions and constructing reliable numerical prediction models. See also → Space Situational Awareness.

space; → weather; → meteorology.

space weathering
  سایند ِ فضایی   
sâyand-e fazâyi

Fr.: altération spatiale   

The slight erosion of Solar System bodies (planets, moons, asteroids) caused by the → solar wind, → cosmic rays, and → micrometeorite bombardments. Space weathering affects the physical and optical properties of the surfaces of these bodies. Understanding this process is therefore important for the interpretation of remotely obtained spectral data, such as space probe photographs of outer Solar System moons.

space; → weathering.

space-time
  فضا-زمان   
fazâ-zamân (#)

Fr.: espace-temps   

A physical entity resulting from the union of space and time concepts. In its most simple version space-time is the four-dimensional continuum, having three spatial coordinates and one temporal coordinate, in which any → event or physical object is located. In → special relativity it is Minkowski's flat space-time. In → general relativity, it is described by a curved entity characterized by a → metric. Free-fall motion describes the → geodesic of this curved space-time. It may have additional dimensions in the context of speculative theories, such as → string theory.

space; → time.

space-time curvature
  خمیدگی ِ فضا-زمان   
xamidegi-ye fazâ-zamân

Fr.: courbure de l'espace-temps   

curvature of space-time.

space; → time; → curvature.

space-time diagram
  نمودار ِ فضا-زمان   
nemudâr-e fazâ-zamân (#)

Fr.: diagramme espace-temps   

A simple way of representing the → space-time continuum, usually including time and only one spatial dimension. The curve of a particle's equation of motion on a space-time diagram is called a → world line. Same as → Minkowski diagram.

space; → time; → diagram.

space-time interval
  اندروار ِ فضا-زمان   
andarvâr-e fazâ-zamân

Fr.: intervalle espace-temps   

1) In Einstein's → theory of relativity, ds2 = c2dt2 - dx2 - dy2 - dz2.
2) In → Newtonian mechanics, time interval: dt; space interval at fixed time: dl2 = dx2 + dy2 + dz2.

space-time; → interval.

spacecraft
  فضاناو   
fazânâv (#)

Fr.: vaisseau spatial   

A vehicle designed to travel or operate, with or without a → crew, in a controlled → flight pattern in space beyond the Earth's atmosphere or in → orbit around the Earth. Also called spaceship.

space; → craft.

spacelike
  فضاسان   
fazâsân

Fr.: genre espace   

Of, pertaining to, or describing an → event being outside the → light cone.

space; → like.

spacelike interval
  اندروار ِ فضاسان   
andarvâr-e fazâsân

Fr.: intervalle genre espace   

The → space-time interval between two → events if it is imaginary, i.e. ds2< 0.

spacelike; → interval.

spacetime
  فضا-زمان   
fazâ-zamân

Fr.: espace-temps   

space-time.

space; → time.

spade
  بیل   
bil (#)

Fr.: pelle   

A digging tool with a flat blade attached to a shaft so that it can be pushed into the ground with the foot.

M.E., from O.E. spadu; cognate with Gk. spathe "blade of a sword or oar."

Bil "spade," variants Kurd. bêr, Baluci bard, Gabri bard(a); Mid.Pers. bêl, bêr; Proto-Iranian *barda- metathesis of *badar-; cf. Av. vadar- "weapon" (Gershevitch 1962).

spall
  ۱) تریشه؛ ۲) تریشیدن   
1) terišé; 2) terišidan

Fr.: 1) éclat; 2) cliver   

1) A chip or splinter.
2) To break up into small chips, flakes, or splinters, or to cause to break off in flakes.

M.E. spalle "a chip," verb spald "to split," from M.L.G. spalden, cognate with O.H.G. spaltan "to split."

Terišé "a chip," from tarâšidan "to cut, hew; scape; shave;" Mid.Pers. tâšitan "to cut, cleave; create by putting together different elements;" Av. taš- "to cut off, fashion, shape, create," taša- "axe" (Mod.Pers. taš, tišé "axe"), tašan- "creator;" cf. Skt. taks- "to form by cutting, tool, hammer, form," taksan- "wood-cutter, carpenter;" Gk. tekton "carpenter," tekhne "art, skill, craft, method, system;" L. textere "to weave;" PIE *teks- "to fashion."

spallation
  تریشش   
tarišeš

Fr.: spallation   

A nuclear reaction in which a high energy particle that collides with a nucleus causes the target to eject several particles, thus changing both its mass number and its atomic number.

From → spall + -ation.

Verbal noun from terišidan, → spall.

span
  بازه   
bâzé (#)

Fr.: envergure   

1) Aeronautics: The distance between the wing tips of an airplane.
2) Math.: The smallest subspace of a → vector space that contains a given element or set of elements.

M.E. spanne, sponne, spayn; O.E. span(n), spon(n) "distance between the thumb and little finger of an extended hand;" cf. Ger. Spanne, Du. span.

Bâzé "extension of both arms when streched out," related to bâzu "arm" (Mid.Pers. bâzûk "arm;" Av. bāzu- "arm;" cf. Skt. bāhu- "arm, forearm;" Gk. pechys "forearm, arm, ell;" O.H.G. buog "shoulder;" Ger. Bug "shoulder;" Du. boeg; O.E. bôg, bôh "shoulder, bough;" E. bough " a branch of a tree;" PIE *bhaghu- "arm"); from Av. vībāzu- "fathom, measure of the outstretched arms."

spark
  اخگر، جرقه   
axgar (#), jaraqé (#)

Fr.: étincelle   

Visible disruptive discharge of electricity between two places at opposite high potential. It is preceded by ionization of the path.

M.E., from O.E. spearca; cf. M.L.G. sparke, M.Du. spranke.

Laki âger "fire accompanied by flame," Lori azgel daaneh-ye aatash-e sorx shodeh va godaaxteh Kurd. agir "fire" Gilaki val "prominence, flame" Tâleši kel "blazing flame" standard Pers. gorr Laki gorron "flame;" jaraqé, probably word made by sound imitation.

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