An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1286
supra-horizontal branch star
  ستاره‌ی ِ فراز ِ شاخه‌ی ِ افقی   
setâre-ye farâz-e šâxe-ye ofoqi

Fr.: étoile au-dessus de la branche horizontale   

A member of a rare class of objects found in → globular clusters to lie about one magnitude above and to the blue part of the → horizontal branch. These stars are identified as post → EHB stars on their way from to the → asymptotic giant branch.

supra-; → horizontal; → branch; → star.

supreme
  ابرتم   
abartom

Fr.: suprême   

1) Highest in rank or authority.
2) Of the highest quality, degree, character, importance, etc.

M.E., from M.Fr. suprême, and directly from L. supremus "highest," superlative of superus "situated above," from super "above," → super-.

Abartom "highest," from abar "high, upon," → super-, + -tom superlative suffix, → extreme.

sur-
  بر-، ابر-، رو-   
bar-, abar-, ru-

Fr.: sur-   

A prefix meaning "over, above, beyond, in addition," occurring mainly in loanwords from Fr.

From O.Fr. sour-, sor-, sur-, from L. → super-.

Bar-, abar-, → super-; ru-, ruy- "face, surface; aspect; appearance," variant rox (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural form "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;" cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height").

sure
  تنز   
tenz

Fr.: sûr   

Free from doubt as to the reliability, character, action, etc., of something (Dictionary.com).

M.E. sur(e), from M.Fr. sur, O.Fr. seur "safe, secure; trustworthy," from L. securus "free from care, untroubled, safe," from *se cura, from se "free from" + cura "care."

Tenz, from (Fine-e Bandar Abbâs) tenz "firm, fixed, solid," variant tereng; (Tabari) tereng, təreq "firm, fixed;" (Baxtiyâri) teng "firm;" cf. Baluci tranj-, dranjit, tranjit/drannj-, draht, dratk "to hang up;" ultimately from Proto-Ir. *dra(n)j- "to fix, fasten, hold;" Av. drənj- (draž-) "to fix, fasten, hold;" Parthian (*abi-) 'bdrynj- "to be sure, secure; make certain;" Khotanese drys- "to hold;" cognate with Gk. drassomai "I hold (with the hand), take;" O.Irish dringid "he climbs;" M.Welsh dringo "to climb;" PIE *dregh- "to hold, fasten."

surely
  تنزانه   
tenzâné

Fr.: sûrement   

Without doub; certainly; to be sure; for sure.

sure; → -ly.

surety
  اتیماری   
atimâri

Fr.: caution, garantie, sureté   

1) Security against loss or damage or for the fulfillment of an obligation, the payment of a debt, etc.; a pledge, guaranty, or bond.
2) The state or quality of being sure (Dictionary.com).

M.E. surte, from M.Fr., from O.Fr. seurte "a promise, pledge, guarantee; assurance, confidence;" from L. securitas "freedom from care or danger, safety," from securus, → secure.

surface
  رویه   
ruyé (#)

Fr.: surface   

1) The outer face, outside, or exterior boundary of a thing; outermost or uppermost layer or area.
2) Math.: An infinite aggregate of points constituting space of two dimensions; part or all of the boundary of a solid.

sur-; → face.

surface brightness
  درخشندگی ِ رویه، ~ رویه‌ای   
deraxandegi-ye ruyé, ~ ruye-yi

Fr.: brillance de surface   

The brightness of an extended object, such as a planet, nebula, galaxy, or the sky background, expressed as magnitudes per unit area (usually square arc second). Surface brightness is calculated by dividing the object's magnitude by its size (→ isophotal radius).

surface; → brightness.

surface current
  جریان ِ رویه‌ای   
jarayân-e ruye-yi

Fr.: courant de surface   

A current whose core of maximum velocity is near the surface.

surface; → current.

surface density
  چگالی ِ رویه‌ای   
cagâli-ye ruye-yi

Fr.: densité de surface   

The amount of a quantity distributed over a surface area divided by the area, such as a surface-charge density.

surface; → density.

surface gravity
  گرانی ِ رویه، ~ رویه‌ای   
gerâni-ye ruyé, ~ ruye-yi

Fr.: gravité de surface   

1) The rate at which a small object in free fall near the surface of a body is accelerated by the gravitational force of the body: g = GM / R2, where G is the gravitational constant, and M and R are the mass and radius of the object. The surface gravity of Earth is equal to 980 cm s-2.
2) → black hole surface gravity.

surface; → gravity.

surface of last scattering
  رویه‌ی ِ واپسین پراکنش   
ruye-ye vâpasin parâkaneš

Fr.: surface de dernière diffusion   

Same as → last scattering surface.

surface; → last; → scattering.

surface temperature
  دما‌ی ِ رویه، ~ رویه‌ای   
damâ-ye ruyé, ~ ruye-yi

Fr.: température de surface   

1) For a star, same as → effective temperature.
2) Meteo.: The air temperature at or near the earth's surface.

surface; → temperature.

surface tension
  تنش ِ رویه‌ای   
taeš-e ruye-yi

Fr.: tension superficielle   

The inward → attraction of the → molecules at the → surface of a → liquid. The reason is that the molecules at the surface do not have other like molecules on all sides of them and consequently they cohere more strongly to those directly associated with them on the surface. Also called surface energy and capillary forces.

surface; → tension.

surge
  برونتاز   
boruntâz

Fr.: surge   

Electricity: A sudden rush or burst of current or voltage.
Sun: A jet of material from an active region that reaches coronal heights and then either fades or returns into the chromosphere along the trajectory of ascent.

From M.Fr. sourgir "to rise, swell," from L. surgere "to rise, spring out" from → sub- "up from below" + regere "to keep straight, guide," cognate with Pers. râst, → right.

Boruntâz, from borun "out, the outside," → out, + tâz present stem of tâxtan, tâzidan "to run; to hasten; to assault" (Mid.Pers. tak "assault, attack;" Av. taka- "leap, run," from tak- "to run, flow;" cf. Skt. tak- "to rush, to hurry," takti "runs;" O.Ir. tech- "to flow;" Lith. teketi "to walk, to flow;" O.C.S. tešti "to walk, to hurry;" Tokharian B cake "river;" PIE base *tekw- "to run; to flow").

surjection
  برشانش   
baršâneš

Fr.: surjection   

A mapping f of a set A onto a set B in such a way that every b element of B is the image of at least one element a of A. In other words, for any element b of B, the equation f(a) = b yields at least one solution. Allso called → surjective mapping.

From → sur- + → injection.

surjective
  برشانی   
baršâni

Fr.: surjectif   

Of or pertaining to a → surjection.

sur-; → injection.

surjective mapping
  همتایش ِ برشانی   
hamtâyeš-e baršâni

Fr.: application surjective   

Same as → surjection.

surjective; → mapping.

survey
  ۱، ۲) بردید؛ ۳) بردید کردن   
1, 2) bardid; 3) bardid kardan

Fr.: 1, 2) relevé; 3) relever   

1) General: A general or comprehensive view; a detailed inspection or investigation.
2) Astro.: The observation and recording of large extents of the sky with a particular instrument using one or more wavelengths in the same spectral domain. → all-sky survey; → infrared survey; → redshift survey; → photographic survey.
3) To conduct a survey of.

M.E. surveien, from M.Fr. surv(e)eir, surveoir "to oversee," from L. supervidere, from → super- + videre "to look;" cognate with Pers. bin present stem of didan "to see;" Mid.Pers. wyn-; O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" cf. Skt. veda "I know;" Gk. oida "I know," idein "to see;" L. videre "to see;" PIE base *weid- "to know, to see."

Bardid from bar- "up; upon; on; in; into; at; forth; with; near; before; according to" (Mid.Pers. abar; O.Pers. upariy "above; over, upon, according to;" Av. upairi "above, over," upairi.zəma- "located above the earth;" cf. Gk. hyper- "over, above;" L. super-; O.H.G. ubir "over;" PIE base *uper "over") + did past stem of didan "to see" (Mid.Pers. ditan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience;" O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Av. dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees;" cf. Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen").

surveyor
  بردیدگر   
bardidgar

Fr.: 1) arpenteur-géomètre   

1) A person whose occupation is taking accurate measurements of land areas in order to determine boundaries, elevations, and dimensions.
2) One of a series of space probes (1966-1968) that analyzed lunar soil and obtained other scientific information after soft-landing on the Moon.

survey; → -or.

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