An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
-escent
   -است   
-est

Fr.: -escent   

A suffix of adjectives often corresponding to verbs in -esce and nouns in -escence. → luminescent.

From -escentia, from escens, from esse "to be," → existence, + -ia.

-escence.

-fy
   -ایدن، کردن، ساختن، آردن   
-idan, kardan, sâxtan, ârdan

Fr.: -fier, faire   

Suffix meaning "to make, cause to be."

From Fr. -fier, from L. -ficare, from facere "to make, do;" cognate with Pers. dâdan "to give;" → fact.

Suffix -idan forming infinitives; kardan "to do, to make," → -ize; sâxtan "to build, make, fashion," → perfect; ârdan contraction of âvardan "to bring; to cause, produce" (Mid.Pers. âwurtan, âvaritan; Av. ābar- "to bring; to possess," from prefix ā- + Av./O.Pers. bar- "to bear, carry," bareθre "to bear (infinitive)," bareθri "a female that bears (children), a mother;" Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein; L. fero "to carry").

-gen
   -ژن   
-žen (#)

Fr.: -gène   

A combining form (also -gene) used in the formation of compound words, meaning: 1) "one that generates:" → hydrogen, → halogen, andogen, and so on. 2) "one that is generated, produced:" exogen, cultigen, phosgene.

From Fr. -gène "producing," Gk. -genes "produced, born," → generate;

-genesis
   -زایی   
-zâyi (#)

Fr.: -génèse   

A combining form of genesis.

From L. genesis, from Gk. genesis "origin, generation," from gignesthai "to be born," related to genos "race, birth, descent," cognate with Pers. zâdan "to bring forth, give birth," → generate.

-gon
   -بر، -گوش   
-bar (#), -guš (#)

Fr.: -gone   

A combining form meaning "angled, angular," used in the formation of compound words. → heptagon, → hexagon, → polygon.

From Gk. gonia "angle," related to gony "knee;" L. genu "knee;" Mod.Pers. zânu "knee;" Av. žnav-, žnu- "knee;" Skt. janu-; PIE base *g(e)neu-.

From bar "side; breadth; breast," variant var (Mid.Pers. var "breast;" Av. vouru "wide, broad, extended" (vourucašāni- "looking far"), related to varah- "breast;" cf. Skt. urú- "wide, broad," úras- "breast;" Gk. eurus "wide, broad;" PIE base uer-, ueru-s"wide, broad"); -guš "corner, angle," Mid.Pers. gošak "corner."

-gram
   -نگاشت   
-negâšt (#)

Fr.: -gramme   

A combining form meaning "something drawn, written" (diagram, spectrogram, oscillogram).

From Gk. -gramma, combining form of gramma "something written or drawn," → graph.

-Negâšt, from negâšt "drawn, written;" p.p. of negâštan, negârdan "to paint, write," → graph.

-graph
   -نگار   
-negâr (#)

Fr.: -graphe   

A suffix meaning "drawn, written," specialized in meaning to indicate the instrument rather than the written product of the instrument.

A suffix, from Gk. -graphos "(something) drawn or written, one who draws or writes," from graphein "to draw, write."

A suffix from the stem of negârdan, negâštan "to paint, write," → graph.

-graphic
   -نگاریک   
-negârik

Fr.: -graphique   

An adjective relating to → -graph.

-graph + → -ic.

-graphy
   -نگاری   
-negâri (#)

Fr.: -graphie   

A combining form denoting a process or form of drawing, writing, representing, recording, describing, etc., or an art or science concerned with such a process. Examples: geography; orthography; → photography; → radiography; → selenography; → tomography.

graph.

-hedron
  دیمه   
-dimé

Fr.: -èdre   

A combining form meaning "face" used in the names of geometrical solid figures having the form or number of faces specified by the initial element.

N.L., from Gk -edron, from hedra "seat, base, chair, face of a geometric solid," from PIE root *sed- "to → sit."

Dimé, from dim, → face.

-ic
   -ایک، -ای   
-ik (#), -i (#)

Fr.: -ique   

A suffix forming adjectives from nouns and bearing several senses; adjective suffix of nouns ending in → -ics.

-ics.

-ics
   -ایک   
-ik (#)

Fr.: -ique   

A suffix of nouns that denotes science, knowledge, principles, characteristic actions or activities, such as → physics, → statistics, → ballistics, politics, ethics. See also → -logy.

Suffix -ics, from -ic + plural suffix -s, from O.Fr. -ique, from L. -icus, Gk. -ikos; cf. O.E. -ig, from P.Gmc. *-iga, Ger. -ig.

Mod.Pers. -ik, from Mid.Pers. -ik or -ig, possibly from the Av. noun and adjective forming suffix -ika, -ka, -aka (as in ainika- "face," maršdika- "mercy," pairikā- "fairy," kasvika- "trifling," kutaka- "small," ahmāka- "ours"). In Mid.Pers. it had an extensive use for creating adjectives of relation. Some examples:
cihrik, cihrig "natural," from cihr (Mod.Pers. cehr);
gohrik, gohrig "natural, essential," from gohr (Mod.Pers. gowhar);
gumânik, gumânig "doubtful," from gumân (Mod.Pers. gomân);
kunišnik "doable, related to action," from konišn (Mod.Pers. koneš);
mânik, mânig "household belonging, household member," from mân (Mod.Pers. mân);
manik "mine, related to me," from man (Mod.Pers. man);
narik "related to male," from nar (Mod.Pers. nar);
xvartik, xwarišnig "edible," from xvart, xwarišn (Mod.Pers. xord, xoreš);
gâsânik, gâhânig "related to the Gathas (the oldest songs of the Avesta, which are attributed to Zarathushtra himself)," from gâsân (Mod.Pers. gâhân);
dâtik, dâdig "legal, concerned with the law," from dât (Mod.Pers. dâd).

Although it has changed into -i in Mod.Pers. (like O.E. -ig into E. -y, as in juicy, dreamy), it is extant in a number of adjectives: târik "dark;" nazdik "near;" bârik "narrow;" zandik (Arabicized zandiq) "heretic;" Monjik (Termezi), pen name of an 11th century Persian poet, from monj "honeybee," referring to his poems being as sweet as honey. The suffix is active in the Tabari dialect, as in larzenik "subject to fear, full of fear, timorous, fearful," ramendik "timid, fugitive," xordinik "very small," bermendik, bərmənik "person who cries easily, highly sensitive person," from bərmən "cry," and also appears as -ij in yušij "related to, belong to Yuš (a famous village in Mâzandarân)," and in the dialect of Boyin-Zahra dehij "villager, peasant, rustic" from deh "village." In recent years -ik has been reactivated in technical terminology to render E. -ics (Fr. -ique, Ger. -ik), as in the following examples: âvâyik "phonetics;" farmânik "cybernetics;" ma'nâyik "semantics;" nurik "optics;" partâbik "ballistics;" tavânik, niruyik "dynamics;" zabânik "linguistics."

The revival of -ik is interesting for several reasons, mainly:
a) In the European scientific terminology, branches of science are denoted by two suffixes:
1) -logy, as in biology, geology, mineralogy, etc. The Pers. counterpart of this suffix is the widely used -šenâsi, → -logy;
2) -ics, as in biotics, dynamics, kinematics, mathematics, etc. Lacking a Pers. equivalent until recently, -ics was equated with -logy. However, the Pers. suffix -ik produces helpful semantic nuances and allows us new constructions from the same base, for example:
biology "zistšenâsi;"
biotics "zistik."
b) Moreover, in some cases -ik is more efficient than -šenâsi. For example, if we translate ballistics by partâbšenâsi, how should we render ballistic missile? Mušak-e partâbšenâsi, mušak-e partâbšenâxti, or mušak-e partâbšenâsâné? All these possibilities seem unfitting, and no matter which adjective we choose among them the problem remains. The reason is that here ballistic does not really refer to the science (-šenâsi) but points to the action of throwing, → ballistic missile. This problem can be turned around using -ik: mušak-e partâbik.
c) It is not phonetically straightforward in Pers. to make adjectives with the -i suffix from words which end in -i, in particular with -šenâsi. The use of -ik solves this problem and produces adjectives which themselves do not end in -i, for example → astronomical unit "yekâ-ye axtaršnâsik" instead of "~ axtaršnâxti".

-ide
   -اید   
-id (#)

Fr.: -ide   

A suffix used to form names of chemical compounds.

From -ide, extracted from Fr. → oxide.

-ids
   -اییان   
-iyân

Fr.: -ides   

Suffix denoting "family of," as in Andromedids, Aquarids, Bielids, Draconids, Geminids, Perseids, and so on.

Plural form of L. -id-, from -is, Gk. fem. patronymic suffix; or from L. -ides, from Gk. masc. patronymic suffix.

-iyân plural form of -i, suffix of relation, adjective + -y- euphonic infix (epenthesis) + -ân plural suffix, as in Haxâmanešiyân "Achaemenids," Sâsâniyân "Sasanides," and so on.

-ing
     

Fr.:   

1a) A suffix forming the present participle of verbs, e.g. going, observing, writing.
1b) A suffix forming adjectives from participles, e.g. a moving object, a flying bird, a crying baby.
1c) A suffix forming an adjective not derived from a verb, e.g. swashbuckling.
2) A suffix that forms nouns denoting the action of, process of, result of, or something connected with the verb preceding it, e.g. becoming, sleeping, working.

1) M.E. -ing, -inde, from O.E. -ende; cf. Ger. -end, Goth. -and, Gk. -on, L. -ans, Skt. -ant, Av. -ant, Pers. -ân.
2) O.E. -ing, -ung; cf. O.N. -ing, Du. -ing, Ger. -ung.

-ism
   -باوری، -گرایی، -گروی، -گری، -مندی و دیگرها   
-bâvari, -gerâyi, -geravi, -gari, -mandi, etc.

Fr.: -isme   

A suffix denoting several senses, including state or condition, devotion or adherence, principle, doctrine, act, process.

From Gk. -ismos, -isma noun suffixes, often directly, often through L. -ismus, -isma, sometimes through Fr. -isme, Ger. -ismus (all ultimately from Gk.); → -ist.

-ist
   -باور، -گرا، -گرو، -گر، -مند و دیگرها   
-bâvar, -gerâ, -gerow, -gar, -mand, etc.

Fr.: -iste   

A suffix of nouns, often corresponding to verbs ending in -ize or nouns ending in → -ism, that is used to form an agent noun indicating adherence to a certain doctrine or custom, practicing a particular skill or profession, and so on.

From Fr. -iste, from L. -ista, from Gk. -istes.

-bâvar, from bâvar "belief;" Mid.Pers. wâbar "belief;" Proto-Iranian *uar- "to choose; to convince; to believe;" cf. Av. var- "to choose; to convince" varəna-, varana- "conviction, faith;" O.Pers. v(a)r- "to choose; to convince;" Skt. vr- "to choose," vara- "choosing."
-gerâ, from gerâyidan "to incline toward; to intend; to make for," infinitive of gerâ, the etymology of which is not clear. Gerâ may be a variant of Mod.Pers. kil "bent, inclined" (k/g and l/r interchanges), from PIE base *klei- "to lean, incline," cognate with L. clinare "to bend" (E. declination, inclination, etc.), Gk. klinein "to cause to slope, slant, incline," Skt. sri- "to lean," O.Pers. θray-, Av. sray- "to lean," (cf. Ger. lehnen, E. lean).
-gerow, -gerav present stem of geravidan "to believe, confide in; to obey;" Mid.Pers. virrôy(i)stan , related to bâvar, as above, ultimately from Proto-Iranian *uar- (Cheung 2007).
-gar from kar-, kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make;" krnoti "makes," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make").
-mand possession suffix, from Mid.Pers. -omand; O.Pers./Av. -mant; cf. Skt. -mant.

-istic
     

Fr.: -istique   

A suffix of adjectives denoting "relating to, characteristic of;" often in adjectives corresponding to nouns in → -ism or nouns in → -ist.

L. -isticus, from Gk. -istikos, → -ist + → -ic.

-ity
   -ای، -ایگی   
-i (#), -igi (#)

Fr.: -ité   

A suffix used to form abstract nouns expressing state, degree, or condition: metallicity, luminosity, periodicity, Gaussianity.

From M.E. -ite, from O.Fr. -ité, from L. -itas (-itat-), from -i- (thematic or, rarely, connective vowel) + -tas (-tat-), may be cognate with Av./Skt. -tāt (as in Av. uparatāt, Skt. uparátāt "supremacy," Av. haurvatāt, Skt. sarvátāt "completeness").

The suffix -igi, from -ig adj. suffix, variant of -ik, → -ic, + -i noun suffix.

Note: The Pers. suffix -i forms state/condition nouns from adjectives, as in: xubi, zešti, râsti, âzâdi, tanhâyi. There is though a phonetic problem when the adj. ends in -i, since two successive i's are not easily articulable, e.g.: felez "metal," felezi "metallic," *felezii "metallicity." Mid.Pers. did not have this problem, since the adj. suffix was -îg or -îk (instead of -i) and the noun suffix -îh (instead of -i). Some examples in Mid.Pers.: tuhîg "empty," tuhîgîh "emptiness," tuwânîg "able," tuwânîgîh "ability," spurrîg "complete," spurrîgîh "completeness, perfection," nazdîk "near," nazdîkîh "proximity." A way out of this phonetic problem is to use the Mid.Pers. -igi. This solution, first introduced in the case of tohi, tohigi (→ void), was generalized by M. Sch. Adib-Soltâni (Irânigi, Âlmânigi, darunâxtigi, borunâxtigi, etc.). This seems a natural solution since the adj. suffix -i is the evolution of the Mid.Pers. -ig, and moreover Pers. currently revives the g phoneme in comparable phonetic situations, as in the ending phoneme (-eh), which derives from Mid.Pers. -ag. A number of examples: adj. âzâdé, n. âzâdegi; adj. tâbandé, n. tâbandegi; adj. mardâné, n. mardânegi; likewise xâné, xânegi, setâré, setâregân; âzâdé, âzâdegân. Interestingly, the -igi suffix has this specified function in some dialects, for example (Tajik, Šahrezâ-yi) xâligi "emptiness," from xâli.
Some examples for the use of -igi in this work: felezigi, → metallicity; mâddigi, → materiality; beyzigi, → ellipcity, tâštigi, → certainty, etc.

-ium
   -یوم   
-iom (#)

Fr.: -ium   

1) A suffix occurring in names of → chemical elements, such as → barium, → sodium, → titanium, → uranium. Variant -um, as in → lanthanum.
2) It also occurs in names of chemical radicals (ammonium, carbonium) and ions of complex cations (imidazolium, nitrosylium, pyridinium).

From L. suffix forming certain neuter nouns (odium, tedium, colloquium; equilibrium, millennium; collegium, consortium), from Gk. -ion.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>