An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
optician
  ۱)عینک‌ساز؛ ۲) نوریکار، نوریک‌کار   
1) eynak-sâz; 2) nurikâr, nurik-kâr

Fr.: opticien   

1) A maker or seller of optical glass.
2) A person specialized in optical instruments.

From Fr. opticien, from M.L. optic(a), → optics, + -ien "-ian."

1) Eynak-sâz "eyeglass maker," from eynakeyeglasses + sâz agent noun of sâxtan, sâzidan "to build, make, fashion; to adapt, adjust, be fit" (from Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz-, Manichean Parthian s'c'dn "to prepare, to form;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach").
2) Nurikâr, nurik-kâr "optics performer, optics workman, optics specialist," from nurik, → optics, + -kâr variants -gar,-gâr, from kar-, kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan, O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "makes," cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "makes," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make").

optics
  نوریک، نورشناسی   
nurik, nuršenâsi

Fr.: optique   

The branch of physics that deals with the properties and phenomena of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range extending from the ultraviolet (at about 40 nm) to the far-infrared (at 1 mm) and with vision.

Optics, from optic, from M.Fr. optique, from M.L. opticus "of sight or seeing," from Gk. optikos "of or having to do with sight," from optos "seen, visible," from op-, root of opsesthai "be going to see," related to ops "eye," from PIE *okw- "eye; to see" (→ eye); → -ics.

Nurik, from nur, → light, + -ik-ics. Nuršenâsi, from nur, → light, + šenâsi-logy.

optimal
  بهین   
behin (#)

Fr.: optimal   

One that minimizes or maximizes some quantity or combination of quantities, such as time, energy, distance, path, etc.

Optimal, adj. of → optimum.

optimization
  بهینش، بهین‌سازی   
behineš, behinsâzi

Fr.: optimalisation   

General: The fact of optimizing. The condition of being optimized. → optimize.
Computer science: Improving a system to reduce runtime, bandwidth, memory requirements, or other property of a system.

Verbal noun of → optimize

optimize
  بهینیدن، بهین ساختن   
behinidan, behin sâxtan

Fr.: optimiser   

General: To make as effective, perfect, or useful as possible.
Math.: To determine the maximum or minimum values of a specified function by systematically choosing the values of the variables from within an allowed set.

From opti(mum), → optimum, + → -ize.

Behinidan, from behin, → optimum, + -idan infinitive suffix. Behin sâxtan compound verb from behin + sâxtan, sâzidan "to build, make, fashion; to adapt, adjust, be fit" (from Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz-, Manichean Parthian s'c'dn "to prepare, to form;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach").

optimizer
  بهین‌ساز   
behinsâz

Fr.: optimiseur   

In computer science, a program that optimizes the speed or resource utilization. → optimize.

Agent noun of → optimize.

optimum
  بهینه   
behiné (#)

Fr.: optimum   

The best or most favorable point, degree, amount, etc. The greatest degree or best result obtained or obtainable under specific conditions.

From L. optimum, neuter singular of optimus "best" (used as a suppletive superlative of bonus "good").

Behiné, from behin superlative of beh "good, fine" (Mid.Pers. veh "better, good;" O.Pers. vahav-, vahu-; Av. vah-, vohu- "good;" cf. Skt. vasu- "good;" Hittite wasu-; Gaulish vesus "good") + -in superlative suffix + nuance suffix.

option
  اپتش، گزینه   
opteš, goziné (#)

Fr.: optesh   

1) The power or right of choosing.
2) Something that may be or is chosen; choice.
3) The act of choosing (Dictionary.com).

opt; → -tion.

optional
  اپتشی، گزینه‌ای   
opteši, gozine-yi

Fr.: optesh   

Left to one's choice; not required or mandatory (Dictionary.com).

option; → -al.

optometer
  دیدسنج   
didsanj (#)

Fr.: optomètre   

Any of various instruments for measuring refractive errors of the eye.

From opto- "vision; eye; optis," combining form from Gk. optos "seen, visible," from opsesthai "be going to see," related to ops "eye;" → -meter.

Did, → vision; -sanj, → -meter.

or
  یا   
yâ (#)

Fr.: ou   

A → conjunction word used to indicate alternatives.

M.E., from or, adverb "early, before," from Old Norse ār akin to O.E. ær "early."

, from Mid.Pers. ayâb, aviâp "or;" cf. P.Pers. ada, Av. adā, aδa "then."

orange
  نارنجی   
nârenji (#)

Fr.: orange   

1) A globose berry with a yellowish to reddish-orange rind and a sweet edible pulp.
2) Any of a group of colors that are between red and yellow in hue (Merriam-Webster.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. orange, orenge, from M.L. pomum de orenge, from It. arancia, originally narancia, alteration of Ar. nâranj, from Pers. nârang, from Skt. narangah "orange tree."

Nârenji, from nârenj "orange," as above.

orbit
  مدار   
madâr (#)

Fr.: orbite   

The path followed by a body moving in a gravitational field. For bodies moving under the influence of a centrally directed force, without significant perturbation, the shape of the orbit must be one of the conic section family of curves (circle, ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola).

L. orbita "wheel track, course, circuit."

Madâr, from Ar.

orbit decay
  تباهیِ مدار   
tabâhi-ye madâr

Fr.: déclin d'orbite   

A gradual change in the orbit of a spacecraft caused by aerodynamic drag of a planet's outer atmosphere and other forces.

orbit; → decay.

orbital
  ۱) مداری؛ ۲) مدارال   
1) madâri; 2) madârâl

Fr.: 1) orbital; 2) orbitale   

1) Of or relating to an orbit.
2) A wave function that describes the state of an electron with a given energy (n, l, and ml quantum numbers) in an atom (atomic orbital) or in a molecule (molecular orbital).

Orbital, from → orbit + → -al.

orbital angular momentum
  جنباک ِ زاویه‌ای ِ مداری   
jonbâk-e zâviyeyi-ye madâri

Fr.: moment cinétique orbital, ~ angulaire ~   

1) Mechanics: The → angular momentum associated with the motion of a particle about an origin, equal to the cross product of the position vector (r) with the linear momentum (p = mv): L = r x p. Although r and p are constantly changing direction, L is a constant in the absence of any external force on the system. Also known as orbital momentum.
2) Quantum mechanics: The → angular momentum operator associated with the motion of a particle about an origin, equal to the cross product of the position vector with the linear momentum, as opposed to the → spin angular momentum. In quantum mechanics the orbital angular momentum is quantized. Its magnitude is confined to discrete values given by the expression: ħ &radic l(l + 1), where l is the orbital angular momentum quantum number, or azimuthal quantum number, and is limited to positive integral values (l = 0, 1, 2, ...). Moreover, the orientation of the direction of rotation is quantized, as determined by the → magnetic quantum number. Since the electron carries an electric charge, the circulation of electron constitutes a current loop which generates a magnetic moment associated to the orbital angular momentum.

orbital; → angular; → momentum.

orbital axis
  آسه‌ی ِ مداری   
âse-ye madâri

Fr.: axe orbital   

The → perpendicular to the → orbital plane.

orbital; → axis.

orbital debris
  تیفالِ مداری   
tifâl-e madâri

Fr.: débris spatial   

Objects in orbit around Earth created by humans, that no longer serve any useful purpose. They consist of everything from entire spent rocket stages and defunct satellites to explosion fragments, paint flakes, dust, and slag from solid rocket motors, and other small particles. Also called space junk and space waste.

orbital; → debris .

orbital electron
  الکترونِ مداری   
elektron-e madâri (#)

Fr.: électron orbital   

An electron contained within an atom which may be thought of as orbiting around the nucleus, in a manner analogous to the orbit of a planet around the Sun.

orbital; → electron .

orbital element
  بُن‌پارِ مداری   
bonpâr-e madâri

Fr.: élément orbital   

Any of the six parameters needed to specify the → orbit of an object around a → primary body (such as a planet around the Sun or a satellite around the Earth) and give its position at any instant. Two of them define the size and the form of the orbit: → semi-major axis (a) and → eccentricity (e). Three angular values determine the orbit position in space: the → inclination (i) of the object's → orbital plane to the reference plane (such as the → ecliptic), the → longitude of ascending node (Ω), and the → argument of periapsis (ω). And finally the sixth element is the → time of periapsis passage which allows calculating the body's position along the orbit at any instant.

orbital; → element.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>