An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

   Homepage   
   


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>

Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
humid
  نمناک، نمور   
namnâk (#), namur (#)

Fr.: humide   

Containing or characterized by a high amount of water or water vapor; moist. → humidity.

Adj. of → humidity.

Namnâk, namur, from nam, → humidity + adj. suffixes -nâk and -ur, variant -var (Mid.Pers. -uwar, -war, from O.Pers. -bara, from bar- "to bear, carry"), as in ranjur, ganjur, dastur.

humidity
  نم   
nam (#)

Fr.: humidité   

Generally, a measure of the water vapor content of the air. Popularly, it is used synonymously with → relative humidity. → absolute humidity, → dew point, → mixing ratio, → specific humidity.

Humidity, from O.Fr. humide, from L. humidus "moist, wet," variant (by influence of humus "earth") of umidus, from umere "be moist."

Nam "humidity, moisture," from Mid.Pers. nam, namb "moisture;" Av. napta- "moist," nabās-câ- "cloud," nabah- "sky;" cf. Skt. nábhas- "moisture, cloud, mist;" Gk. nephos "cloud, mass of clouds," nephele "cloud;" L. nebula "mist," nimbus "rainstorm, rain cloud;" O.H.G. nebul; Ger. Nebel "fog;" O.E. nifol "dark;" from PIE *nebh- "cloud, vapor, fog, moist, sky."

Humphreys series
  سری ِ همفریز   
seri-ye Humphreys

Fr.: série de Humphreys   

A series of → spectral lines in the → infrared spectrum of → neutral hydrogen emitted by electrons in → excited states transitioning to the level described by the → principal quantum number  n = 6. It begins at 12368 nm (Hu α 12.37 microns) and has been traced to 3281.4 nm (3.28 microns).

Named after Curtis J. Humphreys (1898-1986), American physicist; → series.

Humphreys-Davidson limit
  حد ِ همفریز-دیویدسون   
hadd-e Humphreys-Davidson

Fr.: limite de Humphreys-Davidson   

An empirical upper → luminosity boundary in the → H-R diagram. It consists of two sections, a sloping part and a horizontal part. The sloping part, which decreases with decreasing → effective temperature, corresponds roughly to the → Eddington limit. The horizontal part is the temperature-independent upper luminosity limit for late-type → hypergiants. It is thought that → massive stars above the Humphreys-Davidson limit encounter an → instability, possibly due to the opacity-modified Eddington limit, and experience high → mass loss episodes which prevent their evolution to cooler temperatures. → Luminous Blue Variable stars are examples of this high mass loss phase.

Named after Roberta M. Humphreys and Kris Davidson, who first dealt with this limit (1979, ApJ 232, 409); → limit.

Hund's rule
  رزن ِ هوند   
razan-e Hund

Fr.: règle de Hund   

An empirical rule stating that all orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

After the German physicist Friedrich Hund (1896-1997), known for his work on atoms and molecules. → rule.

hundred
  صد، سد   
sad (#)

Fr.: cent   

The smallest three digit number in the decimal system and the smallest square of a two-digit number (10).

Hundred, from O.E. hundred "a counting of 100," from P.Gmc. *hunda- "hundred," as below, + *rath "reckoning, number."

Sad "hundred," from Mid.Pers. sad, sat, Av. sata- "hundred," satô.raocana- "with a hundred windows," satô.təmô.sata- "hundreds of hundred;" cf. Skt. śatá- "hundred;" Gk. hekaton; L. centum; Lith. simtas; P.Gmc. *hunda- "hundred" (Goth. hund; O.H.G. hunt); PIE *kmtom "hundred."

hunt
  شکاریدن، شکار کردن   
šekâridan (#), šekâr kardan (#)

Fr.: chasser   

To chase or search for (game or other wild animals) for the purpose of catching or killing (Dictionary.com). See also → poach, → poaching.

M.E, hunten, from O.E. huntian "chase game," from hunta "hunter," and related to hentan "to pursue."

Šekâridan, šekâr kardan, from šekâr "hunt;" variant bešgar(d) "hunter, fowler; chase; game; place for hunting;" Parthian Mid.Pers. škr "to hunt, pursuit;" Sogdian škr-, (')škr- "to lead, take; pursue, persecute," prefixed 'pškr- "to chase;" Proto-Ir. *skar- "to pursue, drive, look for (the cattle);" + -gar, → -or.

hunter
  شکارنده، شکارگر   
šekârandé (#), šekârgar (#)

Fr.: chasseur   

A person who hunts game or other wild animals for food or in sport (Dictionary.com).

hunt; → -er.

Hunter diagram
  نمودار ِ هانتر   
nemudâr-e Hunter

Fr.: diagramme de Hunter   

A diagram where the surface → nitrogen  → chemical abundance of stars is plotted against their → projected rotational velocity (v sini).

I. Hunter et al., 2009, A&A, 496, 841; → diagram.

hurricane
  توفند   
tufand (#)

Fr.: ouragan   

An intense warm-core oceanic cyclone that originates in tropical latitudes; called a typhoon in the western Pacific Ocean. Sustained winds are 120 km per hr or higher.

Hurricane, from Sp. huracán, from Taino (the language of an extinct Arawakan Indian tribe of the West Indies) hurakán.

Tufand, from tufidan "to roar, to raise a tumult," tufân "storm, the roaring of the sea, the confused hum of men or animals." Is this Persian word related to Gk. typhon "whirlwind," personified as a giant, father of the winds?

hurry
  ۱) تاوش؛ ۲) تاوشیدن   
1) tâveš; 2) tâvešidan

Fr.: 1) hâte; 2) se dépêcher, se presser   

1) A state of urgency or eagerness; haste
2) (often followed by up) To move, proceed, or act with haste (Dictionary.com).

Of uncertain origin.

Tâveš, from Tâleši tâveš "hurry, haste," tâvisté "to hurry up;" variant Kurd. (Mahâbâd) tus "hasty."

Huygens
  هویگنس   
Huygens

Fr.: Huygens   

Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695), an outstanding Dutch mathematician, astronomer, physicist, and horologist. → Huygens Division, → Huygens Region, → Huygens' principle, → Huygens-Fresnel principle.

Huygens Division
  شکاف ِ هویگنس   
šekâf-e Huygens

Fr.: division de Huygens   

In the system of → Saturn's rings, the gap at the inner edge of the → Cassini division at a distance of 117,680 km from the center of the planet with a width of 285-400 km.

Huygens; → division.

Huygens Region
  ناحیه‌ی ِ هویگنس   
nâhiye-ye Huygens

Fr.: région de Huygens   

The inner bright part of the → Orion Nebula, from which most of the radiation is emitted. It is about 5' across corresponding to 0.7 pc (for a distance of 440 pc). See O'Dell (2001, ARAA 39, 99).

Named after the Dutch astronomer Christiaan → Huygens (1629-1695), who sketched the appearance of the Orion Nebula. His drawing, the first such known sketch, was published in Systema Saturnium in 1659. First named such by O. Gingerich (1982, Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 395, 308); → region.

Huygens' principle
  پروز ِ هویگنس   
parvaz-e Huygens

Fr.: principe de Huygens   

Every point of a → wavefront may be considered as a center of a secondary disturbance which gives rise to spherical wavelets, and the wavefront at any later instant may be regarded as the envelope of these wavelets. This statement suffices to account for the laws of → reflection and → refraction, and the approximately straight line propagation of light through large apertures, but it fails to account for → diffraction, the deviations from exact straight line propagation of light. Huygens' principle was later extended by Fresnel and led to the formulation of → Huygens-Fresnel principle, which is of great importance in the theory of diffraction.

Huygens; → principle.

Huygens-Fresnel principle
  پروز ِ هویگنس-فرنل   
parvaz-e Huygens-Fresnel

Fr.: principe Huygens-Fresnel   

A development of → Huygens' principle stating that every point on a → wavefront acts, at a given instant, as a source of outgoing secondary spherical waves. The secondary wavelets mutually interfere and the resulting net light amplitude at any position in the outgoing wavefront is the vector sum of the amplitudes of all the individual wavelets. Using this principle, Fresnel calculated with a high accuracy the distribution of light in → diffraction patterns. The Huygens-Fresnel principle was put on a firm theoretical basis by Kirchhoff and expressed as an integral derived from the → wave equation.

Huygens; → Fresnel diffraction; → principle.

Hyades
  هو‌آدس   
Huâdes (#)

Fr.: Hyades   

A young, nearby cluster of stars (spectral types A1-K) visible to the naked eye in the constellation → Taurus about 150 light-years away. Its individual stars (more than 200) appear to spread out in space. → Aldebaran is a foreground star in that region of the sky.

In Gk. mythology, a group of nymphs and sisters of Hyas, or else his daughters, and when Hyas died while hunting, killed by a lion or a boar, they grieved his death exceedingly, and turned into the stars called Hyades.

Huâdes, from Gk., as above.

hybrid
  دورگه   
doragé (#)

Fr.: hybride   

Composed of two distinct races, breeds, varieties, species, or heterogeneous elements.

Hybrid, from L. hybrida, from ibrida "a crossbred animal," of unknown origin.

Doragé, literally "of two veins, races," from do, → two, + ragé, from rag "vein; lineage; race," → vessel.

hybrid eclipse
  خورگرفت ِ دورگه   
xorgereft-e doragé (#)

Fr.: éclipse solaire hybride   

A rare type of solar eclipse where at some places the eclipse is annular while at other places it appears total. This duality comes about when the vertex of the Moon's umbral shadow pierces Earth's surface at some points, but falls short of the planet along other portions of the eclipse path. Hybrid eclipses are also known as → annular-total eclipses. In most cases, hybrid eclipses begin as annular, transform into total, and then revert back to annular before the end of their track. In rare instances, a hybrid eclipse may begin annular and end total, or vice versa (F. Espenak, NASA).

hybrid; → eclipse.

hybrid pulsator
  تپگر ِ دورگه   
tapgar-e doragé

Fr.: pulsateur hybride   

A star on the upper → main sequence which simultaneously exhibits low-order pressure mode (→ p mode) and high-order gravity mode (→ g mode) characteristic of β Cephei and → slowly pulsating B stars, respectively. Examples include: γ Pegasi, HD 43317, and HD 50230.

hybrid; → pulsator.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>