An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

   Homepage   
   


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
hydride
  هیدرور   
hidrur (#)

Fr.: hydrure   

A binary compound containing hydrogen and another element, such as CH, OH, and HCl.

hydr- + -ide.

Hidrur, loan from Fr.

hydro-
  هیدرو-، هیدر-، آب-   
hidro- (#), hidr- (#), âb- (#)

Fr.: hydro-   

A combining form (hydr- before a vowel) originally meaning "water," but also "liquid, gas." In chemical nomenclature, often denotes a compound of hydrogen.

Gk. hydro-, combining form of hydor "water," cognate with Skt. udá- "water;" Khotanese ūtcā "water;" Hittite uātar; L. unda "wave;" O.C.S., Rus. voda; Lith. vanduo; P.Gmc. *watar (cf. Du. water; O.H.G. wazzar; Ger. Wasser; Goth. wato; O.E. wæter; E. water); from PIE base *wed- "water; wet."

Hidro-, loanword from Gk., as above. Âb- "water," from Mid.Pers. âb "water;" O. Pers. ap- "water;" Av. ap- "water;" cf. Skt. áp- "water;" Hitt. happa- "water;" PIE āp-, ab- "water, river;" cf. Gk. Apidanos, proper noun, a river in Thessalia; L. amnis "stream, river" (from *abnis); O.Ir. ab "river," O.Prus. ape "stream," Lith. upé "stream;" Latv. upe "brook."

hydrocarbon
  هیدروکربون   
hidrokarbon (#)

Fr.: hydrocarbure   

Any of a class of compounds containing only → hydrogen and → carbon. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds found in coal, petroleum, natural gas, and plant life. They are used as fuels, solvents, and as raw materials for numerous products such as dyes, pesticides, and plastics. Petroleum is a mixture of several hydrocarbons.

hydro- + → carbon.

hydrocyanic acid
  اسید سیانیدریک   
asid siyânidrik (#)

Fr.: acide cyanhydrique   

Same as → hydrogen cyanide.

hydro-; → cyano-; → acid.

hydrodynamic
  هیدروتوانیک   
hirdrotavânik

Fr.: hydrodynamique   

Of or pertaining to → hydrodynamics.

hydro- + → dynamic.

hydrodynamic equation
  هموگش ِ هیدروتوانیک   
hamugeš-e hirdrotavânik

Fr.: équation hydrodynamique   

Fluid mechanics: A → partial differential equation which describes the motion of an element of fluid subjected to different forces such as pressure, gravity, and frictions.

hydrodynamic; → equation.

hydrodynamic equilibrium
  ترازمندی ِ هیدروتوانیک   
tarâzmandi-ye hirdrotavânik

Fr.: équilibre hydrodynamique   

The state of a star when all its internal forces are in equilibrium. The main forces are gas pressure, radiation pressure due to thermonuclear fusion that tends to disrupt the star, and the opposing gravity. → hydrostatic equilibrium.

hydrodynamic; → equilibrium.

hydrodynamics
  هیدروتوانیک   
hidrotavânik

Fr.: hydrodynamique   

The branch of physics dealing with the motion, energy, and pressure of neutral → fluids.

hydro- + → dynamics.

hydrogen (H)
  هیدروژن   
hidrožen (#)

Fr.: hydrogène   

The most abundant → chemical element in the Universe. Symbol H; → atomic number 1; → atomic weight 1.00794; → melting point -259.14°C; → boiling point -252.87°C. It was discovered by the English physicist Henry Cavendish in 1766, who called it the "inflammable air."
See also:
antihydrogen, → atomic hydrogen, → heavy hydrogen, → hydrogen bond, → hydrogen burning, → hydrogen coma, → hydrogen cyanide, → hydrogen fusion, → hydrogen ion, → hydrogen line, → hydrogen shell burning, → hydrogenate, → hydrogenation, → hydrogenize, → ionized hydrogen region, → metallic hydrogen, → molecular hydrogen, → neutral hydrogen, → orthohydrogen, → parahydrogen, → triatomic hydrogen molecular ion.

Hydrogen, from Fr. hydrogène, from Gk. hydro-, combining form of hydor "water" → hydro- + Fr. -gène "producing," → -gen; coined in 1787 by the French chemist Guyton de Morveau (1737-1816) because it forms water when exposed to oxygen.

hydrogen bond
  بند ِ هیدروژنی   
band-e hidroženi

Fr.: liaison hydrogène   

The attractive force between the hydrogen attached to an electronegative atom of one molecule and an electronegative atom of a different molecule. Usually the electronegative atom is oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine, which has a partial negative charge. The hydrogen then has the partial positive charge.

hydrogen; → bond.

hydrogen burning
  سوزش ِ هیدروژن   
suzeš-e hidrožen

Fr.: combustion de l'hydrogène   

proton-proton chain.

hydrogen; → burning.

hydrogen coma
  گیس ِ هیدروژنی   
gis-e hidroženi

Fr.: chevelure d'hydrogène   

The cometary cloud of hydrogen, detectable in ultraviolet light, that is immensely bigger than even the huge visible coma it surrounds. It is produced by the dissociation of water into hydrogen and oxygen and by other processes set into motion by solar radiation and and the solar wind.

hydrogen, → coma.

hydrogen cyanide (HCN)
  سیانور ِ هیدروژن   
siyânur-e hidrožen (#)

Fr.: cyanure d'hydrogène   

A colorless or light blue liquid or gas, a triatomic cyanide, which is extremely flammable. HCN is an important industrial chemical and over a million tonnes are produced yearly in the world. It is produced industrially by reacting methane and ammonia in air at high temperature. A wide range of combustion processes produce HCN gas in the smoke or fumes. HCN is found naturally throughout the environment at low levels as it is released from volcanoes and certain plants and bacteria. Hydrogen cyanide is abundant in all kinds of astronomical environments, from dark clouds to star-forming regions and circumstellar envelopes. The first detection of interstellar HCN (at 88.6 GHz) and H13N (at 86.3 GHz) was reported by Buhl & Snyder (1971, ApJ 163, L47). Also called → hydrocyanic acid and → prussic acid.

hydrogen; → cyanide.

hydrogen fusion
  ایوش ِ هیدروژن   
iveš-e hidrožen

Fr.: fusion de l'hydrogène   

A → nuclear reaction where hydrogen (H) nuclei combine to form helium (4He) nuclei. Same as the → proton-proton chain.

hydrogen; → fusion.

hydrogen ion
  هیدرون، یون ِ هیدروژن   
hidron, yon-e hidrož

Fr.: hydron, ion hydrogène   

Chemistry: The → positively charged hydrogen atom, H+, formed by removal of the orbital electron. Same as → proton.

hydrogen; → ion.

hydrogen line
  خط ِ هیدروژن   
xatt-e hidrožen (#)

Fr.: raie de l'hydrogène   

An → emission or → absorption line in the spectra of various astronomical objects produced by the presence of hydrogen atoms in particular physical conditions.

hydrogen, → line.

hydrogen shell burning
  سوزش ِ پوسته‌ی ِ هیدروژن   
suzeš-e puste-ye hidrožen

Fr.: combustion de la coquille d'hydrogène   

A phase in the life of a star that has left the → main sequence. When no more hydrogen is available in the core, the core will start to contract as it is no longer releasing the necessary energy whose pressure supports the surrounding layers. As a result of this contraction, gravitational energy is converted into thermal energy and the temperature will rise. Therefore a shell of unprocessed material surrounding the original core will be heated sufficiently for hydrogen burning to start. During the evolution of → asymptotic giant branch stars hydrogen shell burning occurs alternatively with helium shell burning. → double shell burning.

hydrogen; → shell; → burning.

hydrogenate
  هیدروژنیدن   
hidroženidan

Fr.: hydrogéner   

To undergo or cause to undergo a reaction with hydrogen. Same as → hydrogenize.

hydrogen; → -ate.

hydrogenation
  هیدروژنش   
hidroženeš

Fr.: hydrogénisation   

The process of combining or exposing to → hydrogen.

hydrogenize
  هیدروژنیدن   
hidroženidan

Fr.: hydrogéner   

hydrogenate.

hydrogen; → -ize.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>