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fizik-e âmâri (#)
Fr.: physique statistique
The branch of physics that applies methods of → probability theory and → statistics to the behavior of large numbers of microscopic particles (such as molecules, atoms, or subatomic particles) in order to explain and predict the overall properties of the system composed of such particles.
Fr.: population statistique
Fr.: thermodynamique statistique
Same as → statistical mechanics.
Fr.: poids statistique
1) Statistics: A number assigned to each value or range of values of a
given quantity, giving the number of times this value or range of
values is found to be observed.
A branch of applied mathematics that deals with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population parameters.
From Ger. Statistik "political science," from Mod.L. statisticus (collegium) "state affairs," from It. statista "person skilled in statecraft," from stato "state," ultimately from L. status "position, form of government;" cognate with Pers. ist-, istâdan "to stand" (Mid.Pers. êstâtan; O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set;" Av. hištaiti; cf. Skt. sthâ- "to stand;" Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Lith. statau "place;" Goth. standan; PIE base *sta- "to stand").
Âmâr "computation, arithmetic; statistics," from âmârdan "to reckon, to calculate," related to ošmârdan, šomârdan, šomordan "to count, to calculate," mar, mâr- "count, reckon, measure," bimar "countless," nahmâr "great, large, big;" Mid.Pers. âmâr "calculating, reckoning;" Av. base mar- "to have in mind, remember, recall," hišmar-; cf. Skt. smr-, smarati "to remember, he remembers," L. memor, memoria, Gk. mermera "care," martyr "witness."
bašn (#), qad (#)
1) The natural height of a human or animal in an upright position.
M.E., from from O.Fr. stature, estature "build, structure," from L. statura "height, size of body, size," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm," cf. Pers. ist-, istâdan "to stand," → opposition.
Bašn "stature, height; the body;" Mid.Pers. bašn "the top;" O.Pers. baršan- "height," variant borz "height, magnitude" (it occurs also in the name of the mountain chain Alborz), related to boland "high," bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height," berg "mountain, hill;" Mid.Pers. buland "high;" Av. barəz- "high, mount," barezan- "height;" cf. Skt. bhrant- "high;" L. fortis "strong" (Fr. & E. force); O.E. burg, burh "castle, fortified place;" Ger. Burg "castle," Goth. baurgs "city," E. burg, borough, Fr. bourgeois, bourgeoisie, faubourg); PIE base *bhergh- "high."
1) The position of an individual in relation to another or others, especially in regard
to social or professional standing.
From L. status "condition, position, state, attitude" from p.p. stem of stare "to stand," from PIE *ste-tu-, from root *sta- "to stand," → state., + -tus suffix of action.
Estâté, from estat, → state, + nuance suffix -é.
Fr.: écoulement constant, ~ stationnaire
A flow in which the characterizing conditions, such as → streamlines or velocity at any given point, do not change with time.
Tacân, → flow; pâyâ "steady, constant," from pâyidan "to stand firm, to be constant, steady," from Mid.Pers. pattây-, pattutan "to last, endure, stay."
steady state theory
negare-ye hâlat-e pâyâ
Fr.: théorie de l'état stationnaire
A → cosmological model according to which the → Universe has no beginning and no end and maintains the same mean density, in spite of its observed expansion, by the continual creation of matter throughout all space. The theory was first put forward by Sir James Jeans in about 1920 and again in revised form in 1948 by Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold. It was further developed by Sir Fred Hoyle to deal with problems that had arisen in connection with the alternative → Big Bang model. Observations since the 1950s have produced much evidence contradictory to the steady state theory and supportive of the Big Bang model. More specifically, the steady state theory attributed the → cosmic microwave background to → thermal radiation from → dust clouds, but this cannot account for a single → blackbody spectrum. Moreover, the steady state theory lacked a plausible mechanism for the creation of matter in space. See also → perfect cosmological principle.
The vapor into which water is changed when boiled.
From M.E. steme, O.E. steam; cognate with Du. stoom, of unknown origin.
Boxâr, → vapor.
mâšin-e boxâr (#)
Fr.: machine à vapeur
An engine in which the energy of hot → steam is converted into → mechanical power, especially an engine in which the force of expanding steam is used to drive one or more → pistons. The source of the steam is typically external to the part of the machine that converts the steam energy into → mechanical energy (Dictionary.com).
O.E. style; cf. O.S. stehli, O.N., M.L.G. stal, Dan. staal, Swed. stål, M.Du. stael, Du. staal, O.H.G. stahal, Ger. Stahl.
Pulâd, variant fulâd, from Mid.Pers. pôlâwad, pôlâvat, loaned in Arm. polopat, polovat, maybe related to Skt. pavīra- "a weapon with metallic point, a spear, a lance."
Fr.: balance romaine
A balance used for weighing loads that has a two beams of different lengths. The shorter beam has a hook or the like for holding the object to be weighed and the longer one supports a movable counterpoise that slides to attain a balance.
→ steel; yard, from M.E. yard(e), O.E. gerd "straight twig;" cognate with Du. gard, Ger. Gerte "rod."
Qapân, from kapân "a large balance with one scale, being kept in equilibrium by a weight on the other end of the beam, a lever balance" (Steingass).
Fr.: constante de Stefan-Boltzmann
The constant of proportionality present in the → Stefan-Boltzmann law. It is equal to σ = 5.670 × 10-8 W m-2 K-4 or 5.670 × 10-5 erg cm-2 s-1 K-4.
Fr.: loi de Stefan-Boltzmann
The flux of radiation from a blackbody is proportional to the fourth power of its absolute temperature: L = 4πR2σT4. Also known as Stefan's law.
Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (1844-1906), an Austrian physicist, who made important contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics and Josef Stefan (1835-1893), an Austrian physicist; → law.
Fr.: théorème de Steiner
The → moment of inertia of a body about an arbitrary axis x' is equal to the sum of its moment of inertia about axis x, passing through the center of mass of the body and parallel to axis x', and the product of the mass M of the body by the square of the distance d between axes x and x': Ix' = Ix + Md2. Same as → parallel axis theorem.
Named after Jakop Steiner (1796-1863), a Swiss mathematician who derived this statement; → theorem.
Fr.: 2867 Šteins
Named after Karlis Šteins (1911-1983), a Latvian and Soviet astronomer.
Fr.: aberration stellaire
Same as → aberration of starlight .
Fr.: association stellaire
1) A large, loose grouping of 10 to 1000 stars that are of similar spectral type and
share a common origin. The members move together
through space, but have become gravitationally → unbound.
Stellar associations are primarily identified by their common
movement vectors and ages.
→ OB association;
→ T association;
→ R association.
The concept of stellar association was first introduced by Viktor A. Ambartsumian (1908-1996), Armenian astrophysicist (1947, Stellar Evolution and Astrophysics, Armenian Acad. of Sci.; German translation, Abhandl. Sowjetischen Astron. Ser. 1. 33, 1951). → stellar; → association.
axtaršenâsi-ye setâreyi (#)
Fr.: astronomie stellaire