An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
electromagnetism
  برقامغنات، برقامغناتیس   
barqâmeghnât, barqâmeghnâtis

Fr.: électromagnétisme   

1) The science dealing with the physical relations between → electricity and → magnetism. Same as → electromagnetic theory.
2) One of the four fundamental forces of nature, governing the electric and magnetic interaction between particles.

electro-; → magnetism.

electromotive force (EMF)
  نیروی ِ برقران   
niru-ye barqrân (#)

Fr.: force électromotrice   

The force, analogous to a pressure, which maintains a flow of electricity through a closed circuit. It is the algebraic sum of the → potential differences acting in the circuit. The unit of electromotive force is the → volt.

From → electro- + motive, from M.E., from M.Fr., from O.Fr. motif, from M.L. motivus "moving, impelling," from L. motus, p.p. of movere "to move," → motion; → force.

Niru, → force; barqrân, literally "driving electricity," from barq, → electro- + rân present stem of rândan, → drive.

electron
  الکترون   
elektron (#)

Fr.: électron   

The → elementary particle that possesses the smallest possible negative → electric charge. This structureless particle has an intrinsic → spin (1/2), a mass of 9.109 382 91 (40) x 10-31 kg, and an electric charge of 1.602 176 565(35) × 10-19 → coulombs, or 4.803 204 51(10) × 10-10 → esu.

Term first suggested in 1891 by Irish physicist G. J. Stoney (1826-1911); from electr-, from → electric + -on, a suffix used in the names of subatomic particles, probably extracted from → ion.

electron affinity
  کرونی ِ الکترونی   
karvani-ye elektroni

Fr.: affinité électronique   

The amount of energy released or absorbed in the process in which an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in gaseous state to form a negative ion.

electron; → affinity.

electron capture
  گیر‌افت ِ الکترون   
giroft-e elektron

Fr.: capture d'électron   

A process whereby an → unstable atom becomes stable. In this process, an → electron in an atom's inner shell is drawn into the → nucleus where it combines with a → proton, forming a → neutron and a → neutrino. The neutrino escapes from the atom's nucleus. The result is an element change, because the atom loses a proton. For example, an atom of → carbon (with 6 protons) becomes an atom of → boron (with 5 protons). Electron capture is also called K-capture since the captured electron usually comes from the atom's K-shell. See also → neutronization.

electron; → capture.

electron charge
  بار ِ الکترون   
bâr-e elektron (#)

Fr.: charge de l'électron   

The charge of one electron, e = -1.602 176 × 10-19coulombs or -4.803 204 51 × 10-10statcoulombs.

electron; → charge.

electron configuration
  همپیکرش ِ الکترونی   
hampeykareš-e elektroni

Fr.: configuration électronique   

Of an atom, a form of notation which shows how the electrons are distributed among the various atomic orbital and energy levels. The format consists of a series of numbers, letters and superscripts. For example, 1s2 2s2 2p3 means: 2 electrons in the 1s subshell, 2 electrons in the 2s subshell, and 3 electrons in the 2p subshell.

electron; → configuration.

electron degeneracy
  واگنی ِ الکترون   
vâgeni-ye elektron (#)

Fr.: dégénérescence des électrons   

A → degenerate matter in which electrons are very tightly packed together, as in a white dwarf, but cannot get closer than a certain limit to each other, because according to quantum mechanics laws (→ Pauli exclusion principle) the lowest energy levels can be occupied by only one electron. Therefore, electrons are forced into high energy states. And the significant pressure created by these high energy electrons supports white dwarf stars against their own gravity.

electron; → degeneracy.

electron density
  چگالی ِ الکترونی   
cagâli-ye elektroni (#)

Fr.: densité électronique   

The number of electrons per unit volume in an ionized medium, like an → H II region, as determined from → emission lines.

electron; → density.

electron diffraction
  پراش ِ الکترونی   
parâš-e elekroni (#)

Fr.: diffraction des électrons   

A diffraction phenomenon resulting from the passage of electrons through matter, analogous to the diffraction of visible light. This phenomenon is the main evidence for the existence of waves associated with elementary particles; → de Broglie wavelength.

electron; → diffraction.

electron mass
  جرم ِ الکترون   
jerm-e elekron (#)

Fr.: masse de l'électron   

The mass of an electron, which is 9.109 382 91 × 10-28 g.

electron; → mass.

electron radius
  شعاع ِ الکترون   
šo'â'-e elektron

Fr.: rayon de l'électron   

The classical size of the electron given by re = e2/mec2 = 2.81794 × 10-13 cm, where e and me are the → electron charge and → electron mass, respectively, and c is the → speed of light.

electron; → radius.

electron shell
  پوسته‌ی ِ الکترونی   
puste-ye elekroni (#)

Fr.: couche éléctronique   

Any of up to seven energy levels on which an electron may exist within an atom, the energies of the electrons on the same level being equal and on different levels being unequal. The number of electrons permitted in a shell is equal to 2n2. A shell contains n2 orbitals, and n subshells.

electron; → shell.

electron temperature
  دمای ِ الکترونی   
damâ-ye elektroni (#)

Fr.: température électronique   

1) The temperature of electrons in an interstellar ionized nebula (e.g. in → H II regions and → planetary nebulae) as determined by characteristic → emission lines (optical → forbidden lines or → radio recombination lines).
2) In the → solar wind, the temperature derived from the mean → thermal agitation of the electrons. More specifically, electric field receivers on board space probes carry out the spectroscopy of the → thermal noise due to the potential fluctuations produced by the thermal agitation of the electrons, yielding the electron temperature in certain conditions (N. Meyer-Vernet, 2007, Basics of the Solar Wind, Cambridge Univ. Press). See also → proton temperature.

electron; → temperature.

electron volt (eV)
  الکترون-ولت   
elektron-volt (#)

Fr.: électron-volt   

electron-volt.

electron; → volt.

electron-positron pair
  جفت ِ الکترون-پوزیترون   
joft-e elektron-pozitron (#)

Fr.: paire électron-positron   

The simultaneous formation of an → electron and a → positron in the → pair production process.

electron; → positron; → pair.

electron-scattering wing
  بال ِ پراکنش ِ الکترون   
bâl-e parâkaneš-e elektron

Fr.:   

A → line broadening phenomenon involving the scattering effect of → free electrons on the → radiation transfer in → stellar atmospheres. The scattering of radiation by free electrons plays an important role in the atmospheres of → hot stars, such as → O-types, early → B-types, and → Wolf-Rayet stars. The first detailed study of electron scattering in Wolf-Rayet stars was by Castor et al. (1970), who used electron scattering to explain the broad emission wings of N IV λ3483 in HD 192163. In → P Cygni stars the explanation of the very extended (almost symmetric) wings on the → Balmer lines as caused by electron scattering was first made by Bernat & Lambert (1978). Hillier (1991) showed that significant reduction in the strength of an electron-scattering wing can be achieved in a model of → clumped wind for a lower mean → mass loss rate. This resulted in a better agreement between observations and theoretical predictions. Electron-scattering wings provide diagnostics regarding the presence of density inhomogeneities in → stellar winds (Münch, 1948, ApJ 108, 116; Hillier, 1991, A&A 247, 455).

electron; → scattering; → wing.

electron-volt (eV)
  الکترون-ولت   
elektron-volt (#)

Fr.: électron-volt   

The energy acquired by an electron when accelerated through a → potential difference of 1 volt (1 eV = 1.602 × 10-12 → ergs = 11605 → kelvins).

electron; → volt.

electronic
  ۱) الکترونی؛ ۲) الکترونیک   
1) elektroni (#); 2) elektronik (#)

Fr.: électronique   

1) Of or relating to electrons or to an electron.
2) Of or relating to → electronics or to → devices, → circuits, or systems developed through electronics (Dictionary.com).

electron; → -ic.

electronic state
  استات ِ الکترونی   
estât-e elektroni

Fr.: état éléctronique   

In molecular quantum mechanics, any of → quantum states corresponding to a particular → electron configuration (i.e. an arrangement of the electron(s) in certain → orbitals). The electron configuration with the lowest energy is called the → ground state. All higher energy states are called → excited states.

electronic; → state.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>